Andhra Pradesh

State in southern India

State in South India, India
Etymology: State of AndhrasMotto
Satyameva Jayate (Truth alone triumphs)
Anthem: "Maa Telugu Thalliki"
(To Our Mother Telugu)The map of India showing Andhra Pradesh
Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Coordinates: 16°31′N 80°31′E / 16.51°N 80.52°E / 16.51; 80.52Country IndiaRegionSouth India
Before wasUnited Andhra PradeshFormation2 June 2014 (Bifurcation by forming Telangana) CapitalAmaravatiLargest cityVisakhapatnamLargest metroAndhra Pradesh Capital RegionDistricts26Government
 • BodyGovernment of Andhra Pradesh • GovernorSyed Abdul Nazeer • Chief ministerN. Chandrababu Naidu (TDP) • Deputy chief ministerPawan Kalyan • Chief secretaryNeerabh Kumar Prasad, IAS[1]State LegislatureBicameral
Andhra Pradesh Legislature
 • CouncilAndhra Pradesh Legislative Council (58 seats) • AssemblyAndhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly (175 seats)National ParliamentParliament of India • Rajya Sabha11 seats • Lok Sabha25 seatsHigh CourtAndhra Pradesh High Court Area
 • Total162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi) • Rank7thElevation
269 m (883 ft)Highest elevation1,680 m (5,510 ft)Population
 (2011)Neutral increase [2][3]
 • Total49,577,103 • Rank10th • Density304/km2 (790/sq mi) • Urban
14,610,372 • Rural
34,966,730Demonym(s)Andhrulu, TeluguvaaruLanguage
 • OfficialTelugu • Additional officialUrdu[4][5]GDP
(Advance estimates)
 • Total Symbols of Andhra Pradesh
Song"Maa Telugu Thalliki"
(To Our Mother Telugu)Foundation dayAndhra Pradesh DayBirdRose-ringed parakeet[7]FlowerJasmineFruitBanginapalle MangoMammalBlackbuck[7]TreeAzadirachta indicaState highway markState highway of Andhra Pradesh
AP SH1–AP SH240List of Indian state symbols

Andhra Pradesh (English: /ˌɑːndrə prəˈdʃ/,[8] Telugu: [aːndʱrɐ prɐdeːʃ] abbr. AP) is a state in the southern coastal region of India. It is the seventh-largest state with an area of 162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi)[3] and the tenth-most populous state with 49,577,103 inhabitants.[2] It shares borders with Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and the Bay of Bengal. It has the second-longest coastline in India at about 974 km (605 mi).[3] After existence as Andhra State and unified Andhra Pradesh, the state took its present form on 2 June 2014, when the new state of Telangana was formed through bifurcation.[9] Amaravati is the capital of the state, with the largest city being Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India used by the majority of people, is the first official language. Water sharing disputes and asset division with Telangana are not yet resolved.

As per the 8th century BCE Rigvedic text Aitareya Brahmana, the Andhras left North India off the banks of the Yamuna river and migrated to South India. Megasthenes reported in his Indica (c. 310 BCE) that Andhras were living in the Godavari and Krishna river deltas and were famous for their military strength which was second only to Mauryans in all of India.[10] The first major Andhra polity was the Satavahana dynasty (2nd century BCE–2nd century CE) which ruled over the entire Deccan plateau and even distant areas of western and central India.[11][12][13] They established trade relations with the Roman Empire and their capital city, Amaravati was the most prosperous city in India in 2nd century CE.[14] After that, the major rulers included the Vishnukundinas, Pallavas, Eastern Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Qutb Shahi dynasty, Nizam dynasty, and the British Raj.

The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line separating coastal plains and peneplains. The coastal plains are part of Coastal Andhra. These are mostly delta regions formed by the Krishna, Godavari, and Penna rivers. Peneplains are part of Rayalaseema. 60% of the population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the state's major food crop and staple food. The state contributes 10% of total fish production and over 70% of shrimp production in India. Industry sectors such as food products, non-metallic minerals, textiles, and pharmaceuticals are the top employment providers. The automotive sector accounts for 10% of India's auto exports. The state has about one-third of India's limestone reserves, large deposits of baryte and galaxy granite, and reserves of oil and natural gas.[15] Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), known as Sriharikota Range (SHAR), at the barrier island of Sriharikota in Tirupati district, is the satellite launching station of India.

Amaravati School of Art, architecture developed by Andhras in early first centuries CE, is regarded as one of the three major styles of ancient Indian art and had a great influence on art in South India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia.[16][17] Mahayana, the predominant Buddhist tradition in China, Japan, and Korea and the largest Buddhist denomination in the world, was developed in Andhra.[18][19][20]

Some of the unique products from the state are Banganapalle mangoes, Kondapalli toys, Tirupati laddu, Dharmavaram sarees, Mangalagiri Sarees, Etikoppaka toys, Pootharekulu, and Pedana Kalamkari. Kuchipudi is the official dance form. Many composers of Carnatic music, like Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and Tyagaraja, were from this region. The Tirumala Venkateswara temple near Tirupati is the most visited Hindu religious place in the world. The state is home to a variety of other pilgrimage centres and natural attractions.


According to the Sanskrit text Aitareya Brahmana (800–500 BCE), a group of people named Andhras left North India off the banks of the Yamuna and settled in South India.[21][22][23] The Satavahanas were mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya, and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature.[24][25] They did not refer to themselves as Andhra in any of their coins or inscriptions; it is possible that they were termed as Andhras because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.[26]


Early and medieval history

Ruins of the Buddhist Maha Stupa at Bhattiprolu, built during the 3rd century BCE–2nd century BCE

The Assaka mahajanapada, one of the sixteen Vedic mahajanapadas, included Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Telangana.[27] Archaeological evidence from places such as Bhattiprolu, Amaravathi, and Dharanikota suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan empire. Amaravathi might have been a regional centre under Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region.[28] One of the earliest examples of the Brahmi script, the progenitor of several scripts, including Telugu, comes from Bhattiprolu, where the script was used on an urn containing the relics of Buddha.[29]

The Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan plateau from the 1st century BCE to the 3rd century CE.[30] It had trade relations with the Roman Empire.[31] The later Satavahanas made Dharanikota, near Amaravathi, their capital. According to the Buddhists, Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana, lived in this region.[32][33][34] The Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley in the latter half of the 2nd century.[35] The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna rivers with their capital at Vengi (modern Pedavegi) from 300 to 440 CE.[36] Telugu Cholas ruled present-day Rayalaseema from the fifth to the eleventh centuries from Cuddapa and Jammalamadugu. The Telugu inscription of Erikal Mutturaju Dhananjaya Varma, known as Erragudipadu sasanam(law), was engraved in 575 CE in the present Kadapa district. It is the earliest written record in Telugu.[37]

The Vishnukundinas were the first dynasty in the fifth and sixth centuries to hold sway over most of Andhra Pradesh, Kalinga, and parts of Telangana.[38] The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 CE, eventually merged with the Chola dynasty. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola dynasty until 1189 CE.[39] At the request of King Rajaraja Narendra, Nannaya, considered the first Telugu poet, took up the translation of the Mahabharata into Telugu in 1025 CE.[40]

Kakatiyas ruled this region and Telangana for nearly two hundred years between the 12th and 14th centuries. They were defeated by the Delhi sultanate.[41] Musunuri Nayaks and Bahamani sultanate took over when Delhi sultanate became weak. The Reddi kingdom ruled parts of this region in the early 14th century. They constructed Kondaveedu fort and Kondapalli fort.[42][43] After their rule, Gajpathis and Bahmani sultans ruled in succession before this region, along with most of present-day Andhra Pradesh, became part of the Vijayanagara empire.[44]

The Vijayanagara empire originated on the Deccan plateau in the early 14th century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Sangama dynasty, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal.[45] During their rule, the Pemmasani Nayaks controlled parts of Andhra Pradesh and had large mercenary armies that were the vanguard of the empire in the 16th century.[46] The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form.[47] The Lepakshi group of monuments built during this period have mural paintings of the Vijayanagara kings, Dravidian art, and inscriptions. These are put on the tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.[48]

Modern history

Dowleswaram Barrage built in 1850 by Arthur Cotton

Following the defeat of the Vijayanagara empire, the Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over Andhra Pradesh.[49] Later, this region came under the rule of the Mughal Empire. In 1611, an English trading post by the name of British East India Company was established in Machilipatnam on India's east coast.[50] Nizam of Hyderabad who was initially appointed as viceroy of Deccan in 1713, established himself as the sovereign ruler.[51] Nizam ceded Northern Circars to the British East India Company. Later, the Nizam ceded five territories to the British, which eventually became the Rayalaseema region.[52] The local chieftains, known as Polygars, revolted in 1800 against the company's rule, which was suppressed by the company.[53] The ceded territories became part of Madras Presidency.[54]

Meanwhile, in the present day north Andhra, Raja Viziaram Raz (Vijayaram Raj) established a sovereign kingdom by claiming independence from the Kingdom of Jeypore in 1711. It formed alliances with the French and British East India companies to conquer the neighbouring principalities of Bobbili, Kurupam, Paralakhemundi, and the kingdom of Jeypore. It fell out with the British and, as a result, was attacked and defeated in the battle of Padmanabham. It was annexed as a tributary estate like other principalities and remained so until their accession to the Indian Union in 1949.[55] Following the Indian rebellion of 1857, the British crown ruled this region, until India became independent in 1947. The No Tax campaign in Chirala and Perala in 1919,[56] the Rampa revolt in 1921[57] are some of the protests against British rule.

Dowleswaram Barrage, built in 1850 by Arthur Cotton, brought unused lands in the Godavari river basin into cultivation and transformed the economy of the region.[58] Charles Philip Brown did pioneering work in transforming Telugu to the print era and introduced Vemana poems to English readers.[59] Kandukuri Veeresalingam is considered the father of the Telugu renaissance movement, as he encouraged the education of women and the remarriage of widows and fought against child marriage and the dowry system.[60] Gurajada Apparao, a pioneering playwright who used spoken dialect, wrote the play Kanyasulkam in 1892. It is considered the greatest play in the Telugu language.[61]


Potti Sreeramulu, whose fast unto death in 1952 led to the formation of Andhra State

In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras state, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. The Telugu-speaking area of Andhra state was carved out of Madras state on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city. Tanguturi Prakasam became the first chief minister.[62] On the basis of the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1956, the States Reorganisation Act created Andhra Pradesh by merging the neighbouring Telugu-speaking areas of the Hyderabad state with Hyderabad as the capital on 1 November 1956.[63]

In the unified state, Indian National Congress (INC) enjoyed a monopoly in ruling the state till 1983. After that Telugu Desam Party (TDP) and INC ruled the state alternately.[64] Implementing land reforms and land ceiling acts and securing reservation for lower castes in politics were launched during the rule of P. V. Narasimha Rao.[65] During TDP rule, led by N. T. Rama Rao sub-district administration was transformed by forming mandals in place of earlier taluks, removing hereditary village heads, and appointing non-hereditary village revenue assistants.[66] E-governance through e-Seva centres was started in 2001 for paperless and speedy delivery of government services.[67] Chandrababu Naidu helped Hyderabad grew into an Information Technology hub.[68]

During its 58 years as a unified state, the state weathered separatist movements from Telangana (1969) and Andhra (1972) successfully.[69] When the union cabinet made a decision to consider the formation of Telangana state in 2009 heeding to the demand of relaunched Telangana movement, Samaikyandhra movement opposing it took shape and the state went through a turmoil.[70] Finally, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act bill was passed by the parliament of India for the formation of the Telangana state, comprising ten districts, despite opposition by the state legislature.[71] The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the president of India, with the residual state continuing as Andhra Pradesh.[72]

TDP formed the first government of the residual state.[73] In 2017, the government of Andhra Pradesh began operating from its new greenfield capital, Amaravati, for which 33,000 acres were acquired from farmers through an innovative land pooling scheme.[74] In the 2019 elections, Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy, leader of the YSR Congress Party, became the chief minister by winning 151 out of 175 seats.[75] He introduced the 'village and ward volunteers’ system,[76] and reorganised the state with 26 districts.[77] Introduction of English as medium of instruction in all state schools, and the move to three capitals with Amaravati getting reduced to being the legislative capital, Vijag as the executive capital and Kurnool the judicial capital were stuck down by the High court. The government appealed to the Supreme court.[78][79]


Andhra Pradesh relief map

The state is bordered by Telangana to the north and west, Chhattisgarh and Orissa to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, Tamil Nadu to the south, and Karnataka to the west. Yanam district, an enclave of Puducherry, is in the state bordering Kakinada district.[80] It has a coastline of around 974 kilometres (605 mi), which makes it the second-longest coastline in the nation.[3]

Eastern Ghats near Kadapa

The Eastern ghats are a major dividing line separating coastal plains and peneplains in the state's geography. These are discontinuous, and individual sections have local names. The ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Some of these consist of the Horsley hills, the Seshachala hills,[81] the Nallamala hills, and the Papi hills.[82][83] Peneplains, part of Rayalaseema, slope towards the east.[84] The Eastern coastal plains comprise the area of coastal districts up to the Eastern ghats as their border along the Bay of Bengal, with variable width. These are, for the most part, delta regions formed by the Krishna, Godavari, and Penna rivers. Most of the coastal plains are put to intensive agricultural use.[85] The Kadapa basin, formed by two arching branches of the Eastern ghats, is a mineral-rich area.[86]

Flora and fauna

The total forest cover of the state is 29,784.3 square kilometres (11,499.8 sq mi), amounting to 18.28% of the total area.[87] The Eastern ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the ghats give way to the peneplains, where shrub vegetation is more common. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous types, with a mixture of teak, Terminalia, Dalbergia, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, etc. The state possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum, etc.[88] Coringa is an example of mangrove forests and salt-tolerant forest ecosystems near the sea. The area of these forests is 582 km2 (225 sq mi), accounting for about 9% of the local forest area of the state.[89]

The diversity of fauna includes tigers, leopards, dholes, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles, and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of the Godavari and Krishna rivers support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.[88] The state has many sanctuaries and national parks, such as Coringa wildlife sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam tiger reserve, Kolleru bird sanctuary, and Nelapattu bird sanctuary.[90]

Mineral resources

Mangampet Barytes

The state, with its varied geological formations, contains a variety of industrial minerals and building stones. Major minerals found in significant quantities in the state include beach sand, bauxite, limestone, and diamonds. Minor minerals include barytes, calcite, and mica.[91] The largest reserves of uranium are in Tummalapalli village of YSR district. It has oil and natural gas to the extent of 698 million metric tonne of oil equivalent.[92] It is known for large exclusive deposits of galaxy granite.[93]


The climate varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than in the rest of the state, with temperatures ranging exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). July to September is the season for tropical rains from the southwest monsoon. During October to December, low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal along with the northeast monsoon, bringing rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November to February are the winter months. Since the state has a long coastal belt, the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperatures is generally 30 to 35 °C (86 to 95 °F) except in the north where it could fall below 15 °C (59 °F).[85] Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam district is nicknamed the "Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh" as its temperature ranges from 0 to 10 °C (32 to 50 °F).[94][95] The normal rainfall for the state is 966 mm (38.0 in), and the actual rainfall for June 2020–May 2021 was 1,191 mm (46.9 in).[96]


Based on the 2011 Census of India, the population of Andhra Pradesh is 49,577,103, with a density of 304/km2 (790/sq mi). 70.53% of the population is rural, and 29.47% is urban.[3] The state has 17.08% Scheduled caste and 5.53% Scheduled tribe populations.[97] Children in the age group of 0–6 years number 5,222,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population. Among them, 2,686,453 are boys and 2,535,931 are girls. Adults in the age group of 18–23 account for 5,815,865 (2,921,284 males, 2,894,581 females).[98]

The state has a sex ratio of 997 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The literacy rate in the state stands at 67.35%. Erstwhile West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.32%, and erstwhile Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.89%.[3] The state ranks 27th of all Indian states in the Human Development Index (HDI) scores for the year 2018.[99] As of 1 January 2023[update], there are 39,984,868 voters (19,759,489 males, 20,221,455 females, and 3,924 third-gender voters). Kurnool district has the maximum number of voters at 1,942,233, while ASR district has the minimum at 729,085.[100]

Languages of Andhra Pradesh[a] (2011)[101]

  Telugu (89.21%)
  Urdu (6.55%)
  Tamil (1.04%)
  Others (3.20%)

Telugu is the first official language, and Urdu is the second official language of the state.[4] Telugu is the mother tongue of nearly 90% of the population.[101][102][103] Urdu, spoken by about 6% of the population, was a second official language in fifteen districts of united Andhra Pradesh[104] and was made the second official language on 17 June 2022.[5]

Tamil, Kannada, and Odia are spoken in the border areas. Lambadi, Koya, Savara, Konda, Gadaba, and a number of other languages are spoken by the Scheduled Tribes of the state.[105] 19% of the population aged 12+ years has the ability to read and understand English, as per the IRS Q4 2019 survey.[106]

Religion in Andhra Pradesh (2011)[107]

  Hinduism (90.89%)
  Islam (7.30%)
  Christianity (1.38%)
  Jainism (0.05%)
  Sikhism (0.02%)
  Buddhism (0.01%)
  Other (0.01%)
  Not Stated (0.34%)

According to the 2011 census, the major religious groups in the state are Hindus (90.89%), Muslims (7.30%), and Christians (1.38%).[b][107]

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) 2019–21 data provides an insight into the economic and health status of households. 85% of households in the state have pucca houses. 76% of households (59% urban, 83% rural) own a house. Almost all houses have an electricity connection. 84% of households use clean fuel for cooking. 22% have piped water. 85% of all households (urban areas 97%, rural areas 80%) have access to a toilet facility. Almost all urban households (96%) and most rural households (89%) use a mobile phone. 96% of households use bank or post office savings accounts. 97% of childbirths during 2014–2019 happened in a health facility. The state health insurance scheme (Dr. YSR Arogya Sri), the employee health scheme, the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), the employees' state insurance scheme (ESIS), and the central government health scheme cover 70% of households with at least one member covered.[108]

Administrative divisions

Andhra Pradesh comprises two regions, namely Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. The northern part of Coastal Andhra is sometimes mentioned separately as North Andhra, particularly after the bifurcation to raise voice against underdevelopment.[109]


Andhra Pradesh districts

The state is further divided into 26 districts, with North Andhra comprising 6 districts, Coastal Andhra comprising 12 districts, and Rayalaseema comprising 8 districts.[77] These districts are made up of 76 revenue divisions,[110] 679 mandals[110] and 13,324 village panchayats as part of the administrative organisation.[111]

North Andhra:

Coastal Andhra:


Cities and towns

There are 123 urban local bodies, comprising 17 municipal corporations, 79 municipalities, and 27 nagar panchyats, in the state. The urban population is 14.9 million (1.49 crores) as per the 2011 census.[112] There are two cities with more than one million inhabitants, namely Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada.[113]

Cities with the highest population in Andhra Pradesh, as per the 2011 Census[113]
Ciy/Town District(s) post 2022 reorg Population (2011)
Visakhapatnam Visakhapatnam, Anakapalli 1,728,128
Vijayawada NTR 1,476,931
Guntur Guntur 743,354
Nellore Nellore 558,548
Kurnool Kurnool 484,327
Rajahmundry East Godavari 476,873
Tirupati Tirupati 461,900
Kakinada Kakinada 443,028
Kadapa YSR 344,893
Anantapur Anantapur 340,613


GSDP at current prices for the year 2022–23 is estimated at 1,317,728 crore (US$160 billion) (advanced estimates) against 1,133,837 crore (equivalent to 12 trillion or US$140 billion in 2023) (first revised estimates) for the year 2021–22. The share of agriculture's contribution to the GSDP is at 36.19%, while industry is at 23.36%, and services are at 40.45%. The state posted a record growth of 7.02% at constant prices (2011–12) against the country's growth of 7%. GDP per capita is estimated at 219,518 (US$2,600).[3][114] AP achieved an overall 4th rank in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Report for the year 2020–21, with a first rank in SDG-7 (affordable energy) and a second rank in SDG-14 (life below water).[6]

In 2014–15, the first year after bifurcation, the state ranked eighth in GSDP at current prices, which stood at 520,030 crore (equivalent to 7.8 trillion or US$94 billion in 2023). It recorded 12.03% growth compared to the previous fiscal, which was 464,184 crore (equivalent to 7.4 trillion or US$89 billion in 2023).[115][116]


Lush green farms in Konaseema

The agricultural economy comprises agriculture, livestock, poultry farming, and fisheries.[96] Four important rivers in India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Tungabhadra, flow through the state and provide irrigation. 60% of the population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the state's major food crop and staple food. The state has three agricultural export zones: the undivided Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, the undivided Krishna district for mangoes, and the undivided Guntur district for chillies.[117] Besides rice, farmers grow jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, chilli pepper, mango, and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production, such as sunflower and peanuts, are popular.[118]

The state contributes 10% of total fish production and over 70% of shrimp production in India.[119] The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. The most exported marine products include Vannamei shrimp.[120]

Rythu Bharosa Kendras (RBK) or farmer facilitation centres were initiated by the government in 2020 to serve as a hassle-free, one-stop solution for the requirements of farmers from seed-to-sale.[121] The services provide include sale of seeds and fertiliser, hiring of farm equipment, quality testing and procurement of produce and support for farmer welfare schemes. Banking services through banking correspondent are also integrated. 10,778 RBKs are functioning as of 2023.[122] AP land titling act 2023 was brought in to change from presumptive land ownership system based on possession, registration or inheritance documents to conclusive land ownership system, with government standing as surety for the ownership. Lands in 6000 villages were surveyed with drones and land title certificates were issued to owners, by georeferencing of their land parcels. The benefits of the act include reduction in land disputes and easier acquisition of lands for public requirements.[123][124]


As per the annual survey of industries 2019–20, the number of factories was 12,582 with 681,224 employees. The top 4 employment providers are food products (25.48%), non-metallic minerals (11.26%), textiles (9.35%), and pharmaceuticals (8.68%). Gross value added (GVA) contributed by the industrial sector is 55,035 crore (US$6.6 billion), of which food products (18.95%), pharmaceuticals (17.01%), and non-metallic minerals (16.25%) are the top 3 contributors. From a district perspective, the top three districts were undivided Visakhapatnam, Chittoor, and Krishna.[125]

The defence administered Hindustan Shipyard Limited built the first ship in India in 1948.[126] Sri City, located in Tirupati district, is an integrated business city that is home to several multinational companies.[127] The state has 36 big auto players, such as Ashok Leyland, Hero Motors, Isuzu Motors India, and Kia Motors, with investments of over US$2.8 billion. It accounts for 10% of India's auto exports.[128]

The mining sector contributed 3,390 crore (US$410 million) in revenue to the state during 2021–22.[129] As of April 2023,[update] Ravva Block, in the shallow offshore area of the Krishna Godavari Basin, had produced nearly 311 million barrels of crude oil and 385 billion cubic feet of natural gas since its initial production in March 1994.[130] The state accounts for 2.7% of crude oil production in India, with 827.8 thousand metric tonnes from its Krishna Godavari basin.[131] 809 million metric standard cubic metres of natural gas are produced from onshore sites, which accounts for 2.4% of India's production.[132]


IBM Software Campus, Visakhapatnam

The value of information technology exports from the state in 2021–22 was 926 crore (US$110 million), which is 0.14% of the IT exports from India. Exports have remained below 0.2% in the past five years.[133]

The state is ranked third in domestic tourist footfalls for the year 2021, with 93.2 million domestic tourists, which amounts to 13.8% of all domestic tourists in India. A major share of the tourists visit temples in Tirupati, Vijayawada, and Srisailam.[134]

Government and politics

Secretariat buildings hosting legislative assembly and council, Amaravati

There are a total of 175 assembly constituencies in the state.[135] The legislative council is the upper house with 58 members.[136] In the Parliament of India, the state has 11 seats in the Rajya Sabha and 25 seats in the Lok Sabha.[135]

In the 2024 assembly elections, TDP-led National Democratic Alliance with Jana Sena Party and Bharatiya Janata Party emerged victorious winning 164 seats, leading to N. Chandrababu Naidu, becoming the chief minister of the state for the fourth time.[137] According to an opinion, several factors including the prevailing anti-incumbency against the previous government and the alliance's promise of "Welfare with Wealth Generation".[138]

Government revenue and expenditure

For 2021–22, total receipts of the Andhra Pradesh government were 2.05 lakh crore (US$25 billion), inclusive of 53,284 crore (US$6.4 billion) of loans. States' own tax revenue was 70,979 crore (US$8.5 billion). The top three sources of non-tax revenue are state goods and services tax (GST) (23,809 crore (US$2.9 billion)), sales tax/value added tax (VAT) (20,808 crore (US$2.5 billion)), and state excise (14,703 crore (US$1.8 billion)).[114] The government earned a revenue of 7,345 crore (US$880 million) from 2.574 million transactions for registration services. Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Guntur, and Tirupati are the top contributors to the revenue.[139] The government's total expenditure was ₹1,91,594 crore, which includes debt repayment of ₹13,920 crore. The fiscal deficit was ₹25,013 crore, which was 2.1% of the GSDP. Revenue expenditure was ₹1,59,163 crore and capital expenditure was ₹16,373 crore. Welfare expenditures got the maximum share. Education accounted for ₹25,796 crore, energy ₹10,852 crore, and irrigation ₹7,027 crore.[114] Outstanding debt was ₹3.89 lakh crore, an increase of almost ₹40,000 crore compared to the previous year. This accounts for 32.4 per cent of the GSDP.[140] The outstanding guarantee estimate was ₹1,38,875 crore, of which ₹38,473 are for the power sector, which equals 12% of GSDP.[114]

Interstate disputes

Following the bifurcation of undivided Andhra Pradesh in 2014, Telangana and residual Andhra Pradesh continued to fight over several issues. In 2024, a new beginning was made with the meeting between the newly elected chief ministers on 6th July 2024.[141] The chief ministers decided to constitute committees at the level of chief secretaries and ministers to speed up resolution.

Assets division with Telangana

There are 91 institutions under schedule IX with assets of ₹1.42 lakh crore, 142 institutions under schedule X with assets of ₹24,018.53 crore, and another 12 institutions not mentioned in the act with assets of ₹1,759 crore, which are to be split between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana following the bifurcation. An expert committee headed by Sheela Bhide gave a recommendation for bifurcation of 89 out of the 91 schedule IX institutions. Telangana selectively accepted the recommendations, while Andhra Pradesh asked for their acceptance in total. The division of the RTC headquarters and the Deccan Infrastructure and Landholdings Limited (DIL) with huge land parcels has become contentious. Despite several meetings of the trilateral dispute resolution committees, no progress was made. The Andhra Pradesh government filed a suit in the Supreme Court.[142]

Krishna river water sharing dispute

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana continue to dispute the water share of the Krishna River. In 1969, the Bachawat tribunal for the allocation of water shares among the riparian states allocated 811 tmcft of water to Andhra Pradesh. The Andhra Pradesh government of that time split it in a 512:299 tmcft ratio between Andhra Pradesh (including the basin area of Rayalaseema) and Telangana, respectively. It was based on the utilisation facilities established at that time. Though the tribunal recommended the use of the Tungabhadra Dam (a part of the Krishna Basin) to provide water to the drought-prone Mahabubnagar area of Telangana, this was not implemented. The bifurcation act advised the formation of the Krishna River Management Board (KRMB) and the Godavari River Management Board (GRMB) for resolving disputes between the new states. In 2015, the two states agreed to share water in the 66:34 (AP:Telangana) ratio as an interim arrangement in a meeting with the central water ministry, which is to be reviewed every year. This practice continued without further review. Telangana filed a suit in the Supreme Court for a 70% share. Following the assurance of the formation of a tribunal to resolve the issue, Telangana withdrew its suit. The centre formulated the terms of reference for KWDT-2 in Oct 2023.[143][144]

Godavari water sharing dispute

Andhra Pradesh got 1172.78 tmcft of Godavari water. Telangana is utilising 433 tmcft for its completed projects, while Andhra Pradesh's share is 739 tmcft. The Andhra Pradesh government has opposed Telangana submitting a detailed project report for additional utilisation through new or upgraded projects such as Kaleswaram, Tupakulagudem, Sitarama, Mukteswaram, and Modikunta lift irrigation projects.[145]

Five villages near Bhadrachalam

The 1.50-metre increase in the height of the Polavaram coffer dam to 44 metres raised the suspicion that it led to flooding of Bhadrachalam and nearby villages in Telangana along the Godavari river in 2022. Three mandals that were originally part of Andhra state were transferred back to Andhra Pradesh, excluding Bhadrachalam town, to support the Polavaram project, as those areas are likely to be submerged. Telangana would like to take back five villages on the river banks for ease of movement of its government machinery to provide rehabilitation support to its other villages beyond them, to which the Andhra Pradesh government is objecting.[146]




Vijayawada-Guntur section of NH 16

The state has a total major road network of 47,244.83 km (29,356.58 mi). This comprises 8,163.72 km (5,072.70 mi) of national highways, 12,595.60 km (7,826.54 mi) of state highways, and 26,485.51 km (16,457.33 mi) of major district roads.[147] NH 16, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of the Golden Quadrilateral project undertaken by the National Highways Development Project. The proposed Anantapuram–Amaravati Expressway is changed to Anantapur–Guntur national highway 544D, with implementation expected to begin in January 2023.[148] The state government-owned Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the public bus transport provider. It is split into 129 depots across four zones. It has a fleet strength of 11,098 buses and a staff count of 49,544. It operates 1.11 billion kilometres and serves 3.68 million passengers daily.[149]

1.828 million transport vehicles and 13.7 million non-transport vehicles are registered in the state. In the transport category, 0.98 million are goods carriages, constituting 53.61%; 0.66 million are auto rickshaws, constituting 36.21%; and 0.109 million are cabs, constituting 5.96%. In the non-transport category, 12.2 million are motorcycles, constituting 89.5%, and 1.067 million are four-wheelers, constituting 7.29%.[150] The integrated road accident database project, an initiative of the Ministry Of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH) is under implementation in the state. Construction of institutes of driver training and research Facilities at Darsi, Praksam district, and Dhone, Nandyal district, in partnership with Maruti Suzuki and Ashok Leyland, respectively, is in progress.[151] Automation of driving test tracks in nine district capitals is expected to be completed by 31 March 2023.[152]


Train at Vijayawada railway station

Andhra Pradesh has a total broad-gauge railway route of 3,969 km (2,466 mi) with rail density at 24.36 km per 1000 square kilometres.[153][154] The railway network in Andhra Pradesh is under the South Central Railway,[155] East Coast Railway,[156] and South Western Railway zones.[157] During 2014–2022, 350 km of new lines were constructed at a rate of 44 km per year in Andhra Pradesh under the South Central Railway division. The rate of construction was only 2 km per year in the preceding five years.[158] The Nadikudi–Srikalahasti line of 308.70 km sanctioned at a budget of 22.89 billion (US$270 million) in 2011–12 as a joint project of the centre and state is progressing slowly, with only phase 1 of 46 km between New Piduguralla station and Savalyapuram completed in 2021–22.[159] There are three A1 and 23 A-category railway stations in the state, as per the assessment in 2017.[160] Visakhapatnam has been declared the cleanest railway station in the country, as per the assessment in 2018.[161] The railway station in Shimiliguda was the first broad gauge railway station at high altitude in the country.[162] A new railway zone South Coast Railway Zone (SCoR), with headquarters in Visakhapatnam, was announced as the newest railway zone of the Indian Railways in 2019, but is yet to be implemented.[163][164]


Airports in Andhra Pradesh

Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, and Tirupati airports are international airports in the state. The state has three domestic airports, namely Rajahmundry, Kadapa, and Kurnool.[165] A privately owned airport for emergency flights and chartered flights is at Puttaparthi.[166] Bhogapuram international airport is being constructed with a budget of ₹4,750 crore on an area of 2,300 acres near Visakhapatnam. It is expected to be completed by 2025.[167]

Sea ports

Operational Seaports excluding fishing harbors in Andhra Pradesh

Krishnapatnam Port, Tirupati district

The state has one major port at Visakhapatnam under the administrative control of the central government and 15 notified ports, including three captive ports, under the control of the state government.[168][169] The other famous ports are Krishnapatnam, Gangavaram, and Kakinada. Gangavaram port is a deep seaport that can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT.[170] New sea ports are under construction at Ramayapatnam, Machilipatnam, Mulapeta, and Kakinada.[171]


As of January 2023,[update] the AP statewide area network (APSWAN) connects 2,164 offices of state administration at 668 locations down to the level of mandal headquarters. The network supports both data and video communications. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and the National Knowledge Network (NKN) link district headquarters with state headquarters with a bandwidth of 34 Mbit/s. Mandal headquarters are connected with a bandwidth of 8 Mbit/s.[172][173] Andhra Pradesh state fiber net limited (APSFNL) operates an optical fibre network. This provides internet connectivity, telephony, and Internet protocol television (IPTV) with fibre to private and corporate users in Andhra Pradesh.[174]


The state has 40 major and medium rivers and 40,000 minor irrigation sources. Godavari, Krishna, and Penna are major rivers. The total cultivable area is 19.904 million acres. Major, medium, and minor irrigation projects irrigate 10.311 million acres.[175] The Polavaram project under construction suffered setbacks with damage to its diaphragm wall during the 2022 floods.[176] The Veligonda project is delayed despite plan to commission by September 2023, as only the tunnels are completed in January 2024.[177][178] The Annamayya project, washed away in the 2021 floods, is set to be redesigned at a cost of 787 crore.[179][180]


Rayalaseema thermal power station
Srisailam hydel power project

Thermal, hydel and renewable power plants supply power to the state. The installed capacity share of the state in the public sector generating stations was 7,245 MW. Private sector installed capacity was 9,370 MW, which includes independent power producer capacity of 1,961 MW. The total installed capacity was 16,615 MW. Peak power demand for the state in 2021–22 was 12,032 MW and per capita consumption was 1,285 kilowatt hours. The energy consumed is 68972 million units.[181]


The government is spending 7.3% of the state budget on healthcare, compared to an average of 4 to 4.5 per cent overall in the country.[182] The 108 service provides fast emergency management services by shifting patients to a nearby healthcare facility. The 104 service provides health care services at the doorstep of villages through mobile medical units that visit at least once a month.[183] All the poor families are covered by the free state health insurance scheme called Arogyasri up to a limit of 2,500,000 (US$30,000). The scheme serves 42.5 million people.[184] The services are provided in government and private hospitals under the network. During 2014–2018, though the nominal mean claim amount of Arogyasri beneficiaries went up significantly, it decreased after accounting for inflation. Mortality rates have significantly decreased, which indicates better outcomes are being achieved at a lower cost.[185]


Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

Primary and secondary school education is imparted by government and private schools, regulated by the school education department of the state.[186][187] The government decided to stop financial aid to aided schools, forcing them to handover the schools with the aided staff to government or become private in 2021.[188] The government runs several residential schools including separate schools for BC and SC/ST categories.[189] As per the child info and school information report (2018–19), there were a total of 7,041,568 students[190] enrolled in 62,063 schools.[191] 616,615 students have appeared for the March 2024 secondary school certificate (SSC) exam in the regular stream. Parvathipuram-Manyam district achieved the highest pass percentage of 96.37 among districts. The overall pass percentage was 86.69%, an increase of 14.43% over the previous year, with 100% in 2,803 schools.[192][193] 393,757 students appeared for intermediate second-year examinations held in March 2024. 78%, which is an increase of 7% over the previous year, were declared passed.[194][195]

The state initiated education reforms in 2020 by creating six types of schools: satellite foundation schools (pre-primary), foundational schools (pre-primary – class II), foundational school plus (pre-primary – class V), pre-high school (class III – class VII/VIII), high school (class III – class X), and high school plus (class III – class XII).[196] The transition to English-medium education in all government schools was started in the academic year 2020–2021. It is expected to reach completion by 2024–25. 1000 government schools are affiliated to the CBSE in the years 2022–23 as an initial step, and the bilingual text book scheme was adopted to ease the transition.[197] The state government is going ahead with the English medium based on the parents survey despite protests and court cases.[198] The state initiative is being funded in part by a loan from the World Bank to the tune of $250 million over 2021–2026 through the "Supporting Andhra's Learning Transformation" (SALT) project to improve the learning outcomes of children up to class II level.[199]

There are 169 government-aided degree colleges and 55 private-aided degree colleges in the state. 66 government colleges and 48 private-aided colleges have valid NAAC grades. There are 85 government-aided and 175 private polytechnic colleges with a sanctioned strength of 75,906 students.[200] The AP State council of higher education organises various entrance tests for different streams and conducts counselling for admissions.[201] The AP state skill development corporation is set up to support skill development and placement for the educated.[202]

There are a total of 36 universities, which comprise 3 central universities, 23 state public universities, 6 state private universities, and 4 deemed universities.[203] Andhra University is the oldest of the universities in the state, established in 1926.[204][205] The government established Rajiv Gandhi University of knowledge technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the education needs of the rural youth of the state.[206] Dr. Y.S.R University of Health Sciences oversees medical education in 348 affiliated colleges spanning the entire range from traditional medicine to modern medicine.[207] The public universities, including the legacy universities such as Andhra, Sri Venkateswara, and Nagarjuna, are suffering from a severe fund crunch and staff shortage, managing with only 20% of sanctioned full-time staff.[208] Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation University (KL College of Engineering) bagged the 50th rank, while Andhra university in Visakhapatnam bagged the 76th rank in the overall category of India rankings for 2023 as per the national institute ranking framework (NIRF) of the Union Ministry of Education. 2,478 institutions, including 242 institutions from the state, participated in the ranking.[209] The gross enrolment ratio (GER) in higher education for the age group 18–23 for the state is at 35.2% for the year 2019–20, which compares favourably with the GER for all of India at 27.1%. With a female GER of 35.3 and a male GER of 38.2, the Gender Parity Index is 0.84. The corresponding ratio for India is 1.01.[210]

There were 510 industrial training institutes (ITI) in the year 2020–21 in Andhra Pradesh, with 82 under government management and 417 under private management. The total available seats in 2021 were 93,280, out of which 48.90% were filled. 10,053 students completed ITI education in the year 2020.[211]

The state has 2,510 public libraries, including 4 regional libraries and 13 district central libraries under government management.[212] Saraswata Niketanam at Vetapalem in Bapatla district, one of the oldest libraries established under private management in 1918, is losing its attraction as the Internet spreads.[213] The government is planning to develop digital libraries at the village panchayat level.[214]

Science and technology

Chandrayaan 2 Module launch at SDSC, Sriharikota

As of 20 June 2023,[update] there are 190 science and technology organisations in Andhra Pradesh, including 12 central labs and research institutions.[215] Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), known as Sriharikota Range (SHAR), on the barrier island of Sriharikota in Tirupati district, is a satellite launching station operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation.[216] It is India's primary orbital launch site. India's lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre on 22 October 2008.[217]

Some notable scientists

Yellapragada Subba Rao, a pioneering biochemist hailing from the state, discovered the function of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source in the cell and developed drugs for cancer and filariasis.[218][219] Yelavarthy Nayudamma, a chemical engineer, worked extensively for the Central Leather Research Institute in Chennai and rose to become the director general of the Center for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India.[220] C. R. Rao was an Indian-American mathematician and statistician and an alumnus of Andhra University. His work on statistics influenced various sciences.[221]


The total number of registered newspapers and periodicals in the state for the years 2020–21 was 5,798. There were 1,645 dailies, 817 weeklies, 2,431 monthlies, and 623 fortnightlies. 787 Telugu dailies had a circulation of 9,911,005. 103 English dailies had a circulation of 1,646,453.[222][223] Eenadu, Sakshi, and Andhra Jyothi are the top 3 Telugu daily newspapers in terms of circulation in India and are also the top 3 Telugu news sites.[224][225] BBC Telugu news was launched on 2 October 2017.[226][227] Several privately owned news media outlets are considered biased towards specific political parties in the state.[228][229]

There were 10 general entertainment channels, 23 news channels, 2 health channels, 6 religious channels, 2 other channels, and 2 cable distribution channels, for a total of 45 channels empanelled by the Andhra Pradesh information and public relations department.[230] As of 2019,[update] Akashvani previously known as All India Radio, operates 3 MW, 17 FM transmitters from 14 locations in the state. It reaches 99% of the area and 99.5% of population. Akashvani's FM coverage alone reaches 36% of the area and 45% of population.[231] 5 private operators run 13 FM stations, with Red FM operating from 5 locations.[232]


Geographically notable items

Kondapalli Toys at a house in Vijayawada

Andhra Pradesh has 17 geographical indications (GI) in the categories of agriculture, handicrafts, foodstuffs, and textiles as per the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.[233] Some of the GI products are Banaganapalle mangoes,[234] Bandar laddu,[235] Kondapalli toys, Tirupati laddu, Dharmavaram textiles, Machilipatnam Kalamkari, and Srikalahasti Kalamkari handicrafts.[236][237] The soft limestone idol carvings of Durgi,[238] and Etikoppaka lacquered wooden toys are also notable handicrafts.[239][240]


Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu during 11-14 centuries.[241] Nannayya wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar, called Andhra Shabda Chintamani in Sanskrit.[242] Pothana translated Bhagavatam into Telugu.[243] Vemana was an Indian philosopher who wrote Telugu poems using simple language and native idioms on a variety of subjects, including yoga, wisdom, and morality.[244] Potuluri Veerabrahmendhra swami, a clairvoyant and social reformer of 17th century, wrote Kalagnanam, a book of predictions.[245][246][247]

Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam is termed Adhunika Telugu Sahityam (modern Telugu literature).[248] He was the author of the first Telugu social novel Rajasekhara Charitram, published in 1880.[249] The use of colloquial idiom rather than grandhik (classical) in literature championed by Gurajada Apparao and Gidugu Ramamurthy Panthulu led to increased literacy.[250] The modern Telugu poetry, which began around 1900 developed into three forms — bhava kavitvam (lyrical poetry), abhyudaya kavitvam (progressive poetry), and new experimental poetry, including viplava kavitvam (revolutionary poetry). Gurajada Apparao, Rayaprolu Subbarao, Gurram Jashuva, Viswanatha Satyanarayana, Devulapalli Krishnasastri, and Sri Sri were some of the modern Telugu poets.[250] Viswanatha Satyanarayana was conferred the first Jnanpith Award for Telugu literature in 1970.[251] Telugu film song as literature took shape in the 1930s. Some of the famous lyric writers include Samudrala Senior, Arudra, Athreya, Daasarathi, and C. Narayana Reddy.[252]


Sankranti is the major harvest festival celebrated across the state.[253] It is celebrated for four days in the second week of January. The first day of Telugu new year Ugadi which occurs during March/April is also a special festival with preparation and sharing of pickle (pachhadi) made from raw mangoes, neem flowers, pepper powder, jaggery and tamarind. Tasting this pickle which is mix of different tastes teaches the importance of taking positive/negative life experiences in one's stride. Celebrations end with the recitation of the coming year's astrological predictions called Panchanga sravanam. Vijaya Dasami known commonly as Dussera and Deepavali, the festival of lights are other major Hindu festivals.[254] Shivaratri is celebrated at Kotappakonda, with people from nearby villages preparing 80–100 ft height frames called prabhalu and taking it in a procession to the shine. Eid is celebrated with special prayers.[255] Rottela Panduga is celebrated at Bara Shaheed Dargah in Nellore with participation across religious lines.[256] Christians celebrate their religious festivals Good Friday, Easter and Christmas with processions and prayers.[257][258][259]

Dance, music, and cinema

Kuchipudi dance

Kuchipudi, the cultural dance recognised as the official dance form of the state of Andhra Pradesh, originated in the village of Kuchipudi in Krishna district.[260] Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, Tyagaraja, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent.[261] The Telugu film industry hosted many music composers and playback singers, such as Ghantasala, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, and P. B. Sreenivas.[citation needed] Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story.[262] Burra katha is an oral storytelling technique in which the topic is either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue. It lost its sheen due to poor patronage[263] Drama is an Indian theatre art form is still popular.[264] Gurajada Apparao wrote the play Kanyasulkam in 1892, which is often considered the greatest play in the Telugu language.[265] C. Pullaiah is cited as the father of the Telugu cinema.[266][267]

Andhra Pradesh State Film, Television & Theatre Development Corporation offers incentives to promote the industry.[268] The government is asking the film industry to make Vizag its hub.[269] The Telugu film industry (known as "Tollywood"), which produces 300 films annually, is primarily based in Hyderabad, though several films are shot in Vizag.[270] Film producer D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness record for the most films produced by a person.[271] In the years 2005, 2006, and 2008, the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[272][273] "Naatu Naatu" from the film RRR became the first song from an Indian film to win the Academy Award for Best Original Song and the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song, as well as the first song from an Asian film to win the former.[274][275]


Vegetarian Andhra meal, served on important occasions

Andhra meals are combinations of spicy, tangy, and sweet flavours. Chillies, which are abundantly produced in Andhra Pradesh, and curry leaves are used copiously in most preparations of curries and chutneys. Various types of Pappu are made using lentils in combination with tomatoes, spinach, gongura, ridge gourd, etc. Apart from curries, pulusu, a stew made using tamarind juice in combination with vegetables, sea food, chicken, mutton, etc., is popular. Pachchadi, a paste usually made with a combination of groundnuts, fried vegetables, and chillies, is a must in a meal. Pickles made using mangoes, gooseberries, lemons, etc. are enjoyed in combination with Pappu. Buttermilk and yoghurt mixed with rice and eaten towards the end of the meal soothe the body, especially after eating spicy food items earlier. Ariselu, Burelu, Laddu, and Pootharekulu are some of the sweets made for special festivals and occasions.[276][277]


Some of the popular religious pilgrim destinations include Tirumala Venkateswara temple at Tirupati, Srikalahasti temple, Varaha Lakshmi Narasimha temple, Simhachalam, Shahi Jamia Masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, and Buddhist centres at Amaravati and Nagarjuna Konda. Tirumala Venkateswara temple is the world's most visited Hindu temple, with footfalls of 30,000–40,000 daily and about 75,000 on New Year's Eve.[278] The region is home to a variety of other pilgrimage centres, such as the Pancharama Kshetras, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga, Kanaka Durga Temple and Kodanda Rama Temple. [279]

The state has several beaches in its coastal districts, such as Rushikonda, Mypadu, Suryalanka, etc.;[280] caves such as Borra Caves;[281] Indian rock-cut architecture depicting Undavalli Caves;[282] and the country's second-longest cave system, the Belum Caves.[283] The valleys and hills include Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Papi Hills, and Gandikota Gorge.[284][285] Arma Konda, located in Visakhapatnam district, is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats.[286]


Museums in Andhra Pradesh

The state has 32 museums,[287][c] which feature a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery, inscriptions, and religious artefacts. The Amaravati Archaeological Museum has several archaeological artefacts.[288] Visakha Museum and Telugu Samskruthika Niketanam in Visakhapatnam display historical artefacts of the pre-independence era. Bapu Museum in Vijayawada displays a large collection of artefacts. Advanced projection mapping with graphic, animation, and laser displays is used to tell the history of Kondapalli Fort, utilising the irregular landscapes, ruins, and buildings present in the fort as a screen. It was launched in 2019.[289]

The Archaeological Survey of India identified 135 centrally protected monuments in the state of Andhra Pradesh. These include the reconstructed monuments at Anupu and Nagarjunakonda.[290]


Dr. Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy ACA–VDCA Cricket Stadium in Visakhapatnam Dr PVG Raju ACA Sports Complex Vizianagaram

The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh is the governing body that looks after the infrastructure development, coaching, and administration of sports promotion schemes.[291] Dr. YSR Sports School, with classes for grades 4–10 and a focus on tapping rural sports talent, was established in Putlampalli, YSR district, in December 2006.[292]

The ACA-VDCA stadium in Visakhapatnam hosted ODI, T20I, Test Matches and IPL matches.[293] Andhra Pradesh secured 16 medals at the 36th National Games held in 2022. It was ranked twenty-first in the competition. It won the most medals in athletics. Two silvers and one bronze were won in weightlifting.[294]

Karnam Malleswari is the first female Indian to win an Olympic medal.[295] Pullela Gopichand is a former Indian badminton player. He won the All England Open Badminton Championships in 2001, becoming the second Indian to win after Prakash Padukone.[296][297] Srikanth Kidambi, a badminton player, is the first Indian to reach the world championships final in 2021 in the men's singles and win a silver medal.[298]

See also


  1. ^ Excluding districts and mandals which went to Telangana
  2. ^ The Christian population is significantly undercounted since SC reservation benefits are denied to Christians.
  3. ^ Two entries are repeated


  1. ^ Bandari, Pavan (7 June 2024). "Neerabh Kumar Prasad Appointed as New CS of AP".
  2. ^ a b DOP 2023, p. 430.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g DOP 2023, p. 3.
  4. ^ a b "AP Official Languages Act Amended to Recognise Urdu as Second Language". Sakshi Post. 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 26 March 2022. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  5. ^ a b Pavan (17 June 2022). "AP govt. issues orders recognising Urdu as the official language". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 27 July 2023. Retrieved 27 July 2023.
  6. ^ a b c M, Sambasiva Rao (16 March 2023). "Andhra Pradesh posts a growth of 16.22% over the previous year". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 25 March 2023. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  7. ^ a b "Andhra Pradesh gets new state bird, state flower". Deccan Chronicle. 31 May 2018. Archived from the original on 1 June 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  8. ^ "Andhra Pradesh". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 26 September 2023. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  9. ^ ICLD 2014, p. 2.
  10. ^ V. D., Mahajan (2016). Ancient India. S. Chand Publishing. p. 297. ISBN 978-93-5253-132-5.
  11. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (1989). A New History of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 75, 76. ISBN 978-0-19-505636-5. Apparently originating somewhere between the peninsular rivers Godavari and Krishna, homeland of the Dravidian Telugu-speaking peoples whose descendants now live in a state called Andhra, the great Andhra dynasty spread across much of south and central India from the second century BC till the second century AD.
  12. ^ "History of Andhra Pradesh". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 March 2023. About the 1st century CE the Satavahanas (or Satakarni), one of the most-renowned of the Andhra dynasties, came to power.
  13. ^ Shastri, Ajay Mitra (1998). The Sātavāhanas and the Western Kshatrapas: A Historical Framework. Dattsons. pp. 11, 12. ISBN 978-81-7192-031-0.
  14. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (1989). A New History of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 75, 76. ISBN 978-0-19-505636-5. Amaravati on the banks of the Krishna, which was later the southeast capital of the Satavahanas, flourished in its trade with Rome, Ceylon, and Southeast Asia, and may well have been the most prosperous city of India during the second century of the Christian era.
  15. ^ MOPNG 2023.
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