Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

Indian scientific research and development organization

  • Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar
  • Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
Established26 September 1942; 81 years ago (26 September 1942)PresidentPrime Minister of IndiaDirector GeneralN. KalaiselviBudget7,144 crore (US$860 million) (2021–22)[1]AddressAnusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi - 110 001Location
New Delhi

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR; IAST: vaigyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada) is a research and development (R&D) organisation in India to promote scientific, industrial and economic growth. Headquartered in New Delhi, it was established as an autonomous body in 1942 under the aegis of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. CSIR is among the largest publicly funded R&D organisations in the world.[2] CSIR has pioneered sustained contribution to science and technology (S&T) human resource development in India.[3]

As of 2013,[update] it runs 37 laboratories/institutes, 39 outreach centres, 3 Innovation Centres and 5 units throughout the nation, with a collective staff of over 14,000, including a total of 4,600 scientists and 8,000 technical and support personnel.[4] Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.[5]

The research and development activities of CSIR include aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences and healthcare including diagnostics, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.[5]

N. Kalaiselvi is the present Director General of CSIR-cum-Secretary DSIR, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.[6]

In terms of Intellectual property, CSIR has 2971 patents in force internationally and 1592 patents in force in India.[4] CSIR is granted more than 14000 patents worldwide since its inception. CSIR was awarded the National Intellectual Property (IP) Award 2018 in the category "Top R&D Institution / Organisation for Patents and Commercialisation" by Indian Patent Office.

In late 2007, the Minister of Science and Technology, Kapil Sibal stated, in a Question Hour session of the Parliament, that CSIR has developed 1,376 technologies/knowledgebase during the last decade of the 20th century.[7]


In the 1930s, the need for establishing research organisations for the development of natural resources and new industries in India began to emerge. Eminent citizens such as C. V. Raman, Lt. Col. Seymour Sewell and J. C. Ghosh had proposed the creation of an advisory board of scientific research. Sir Richard Gregory, then editor of Nature, was among the first people who officially reported to the British Government. After visiting scientific departments and universities in India in 1933, Gregory submitted to Samuel Hoare, Secretary of State for India, regarding the need of scientific organisation similar to the DSIR in Britain. Indian scientists at Calcutta and Bangalore initiated schemes to launch a National Institute of Sciences and an Indian Academy of Sciences, respectively. At the Fifth Industries Conference in 1933, the Provincial Governments of Bombay, Madras, Bihar and Orissa unanimously reiterated their demand for a co-ordinating forum for industrial research. Hoare advised the Viceroy, Lord Willingdon, to support the demand. However, in May 1934, Willingdon replied to Hoare saying, "The creation of a Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in India to promote the application of research to natural resources does not appear to be necessary." While the Indian DSIR was rejected, the colonial government provided a small concession. It instead offered to create an Industrial Intelligence and Research Bureau, which came into operation in April 1935 under the Indian Stores Department. The Bureau's limited resources (with a budget of ₹1.0 lakh per annum) made it impossible to initiate major research and industrial activities as had been hoped for; it was mainly concerned with testing and quality control.[8]

At the onset of World War II in 1939, the bureau was proposed to be abolished. Arguably, Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar became the most instrumental in the creation of CSIR in India.[9] As a member of Viceroy's executive council, and also of Commerce, he recommended that the Bureau should be terminated, not as a measure of economy, but to make room for a Board of Scientific and Industrial Research, which should be endowed with greater resources and wider objectives. It was by this persistence that the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research (BSIR) was created on 1 April 1940 for a period of two years. Mudaliar became the chair of the board. It was at this point that Bhatnagar was appointed to pilot the board, as the Director. The BSIR was allocated an annual budget of ₹5,00,000 under the Department of Commerce. By the end of 1940, about 80 researchers were engaged, of whom one-quarter was directly employed. Major achievements of BSIR included development of the techniques for the purification of Baluchistan sulphur anti-gas cloth manufacture, vegetable oil blends as fuel and lubricants, plastic packing cases for army boots and ammunition, dyes for uniforms and the preparation of vitamins, and the invention of a pyrethrum emulsifier and cream. In early 1941 Bhatnagar persuaded the government to set up an Industrial Research Utilisation Committee (IRUC) for translating results into application. The government then agreed to make a separate fund out of the royalties received from industry for further investment into industrial research. Mudaliar recommended that an Industrial Research Fund should be constituted, which would have an annual grant of ₹10,00,000 for a period of five years. This was accepted by the Central Assembly in Delhi at its session on 14 November 1941.

Then the constitution of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as an autonomous body was prepared under Mudaliar and Bhatnagar. Thus, CSIR came into operation on 26 September 1942. The BSIR and IRUC were incorporated into the advisory bodies to the governing body of the CSIR. In 1943 the governing body of CSIR approved the proposal of Bhatnagar to establish five national laboratories — the National Chemical Laboratory, the National Physical Laboratory, the Fuel Research Station, the Glass & Ceramics Research Institute and the National Metallurgical Laboratory. In 1944 in addition to its annual budget of ₹10 lakh, CSIR received a grant of ₹1 crore for the establishment of these laboratories. The Tata Industrial House donated ₹20 lakh for the chemical, metallurgical and fuel research laboratories.[8] The foundation for the Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute at Kolkata was the first to be laid, in December 1945; National Metallurgical Laboratory at Jamshedpur in November 1946; and that for the National Chemical Laboratory at Pune was the last, on 6 April 1947, four months before India became independent.[10] All the five establishments were completed by 1950.[9]

Organisation Structure

  1. President : Prime Minister (Ex-Officio) [11]
  2. Vice President : Minister of Science & Technology, India (Ex-Officio)
  3. Governing Body : The Director General is the head of the governing body. The other ex-officio member is the finance secretary (expenditures). Other members' terms are three years.
  4. CSIR Advisory Board : 15-member body composed of prominent members from respective fields of science and technology. Its function is to provide S&T inputs to the governing body. Member terms are three years.

CSIR achievements

A poster showing CSIR's combat mission against COVID-19

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize

The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize was established by CSIR in 1958. The prize is named after the Founder Director Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar.

The nominees for the award are filtered out from the research categories of - Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Earth Sciences, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary, Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Medical Sciences & Physical Sciences.

The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize comes up with a Citation, a Plaque & a Cash Award of 5 Lakh Rupees with the addition of a stipend of ₹15,000/- per month (till the age of 65).

Every year, the Award Selection Committee of CSIR presents the award to maximum 2 individuals from each research category. As per the stats, the SSB Prize has been awarded to 525 individuals for their exemplary work in Science & Technology.

The candidates must be:

  • Indian Nationality
  • Overseas citizen of India (OCI) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) working in India
  • The awardee must have made conspicuously important and outstanding contributions to human knowledge and progress – fundamental and applied – in the field of endeavour, which is his/her specialisation.
  • Upper Age Limit – 45 years.

The above criteria help CSIR Committee to select the eligible candidates for the award but the selection will be based on the results of selection procedure which is conducted by the Advisory Committee of CSIR.

Research laboratories under CSIR

As of May 2024, there are 39 research laboratories, 39 outreach centres, 1 Innovation Complexes, and three units with a pan-India presence under CSIR in India.

Laboratory State City Year Established
AMPRI - Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute Madhya Pradesh Bhopal 1982
C-MMACS - CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation Karnataka Bengaluru 1988
CBRI - CSIR-Central Building Research Institute Uttarakhand Roorkee 1947
CCMB- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology Telangana Hyderabad 1977
CDRI - Central Drug Research Institute Uttar Pradesh Lucknow 1951
CECRI- Central Electro Chemical Research Institute Tamil Nadu Karaikudi 1953
CEERI - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute Rajasthan Pilani 1953
CFTRI - Central Food Technological Research Institute Karnataka Mysuru 1950
CGCRI - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute West Bengal Kolkata 1950
CIMAP - Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Uttar Pradesh Lucknow 1959
CIMFR - Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research Jharkhand Dhanbad 2007
CLRI - Central Leather Research Institute Tamil Nadu Chennai 1947
CMERI - Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute West Bengal Durgapur 1958
CRRI - Central Road Research Institute Delhi New Delhi 1952
CSIO - Central Scientific Instruments Organisation Chandigarh Chandigarh 1959
CSMCRI - Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute Gujarat Bhavnagar 1954
IGIB - Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology Delhi New Delhi 1977
IHBT - Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology Himachal Pradesh Palampur 1983
IICB - Indian Institute of Chemical Biology West Bengal Kolkata 1935
IICT - Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Telangana Hyderabad 1944
IIIM, Jammu - Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine Jammu and Kashmir (union territory) Jammu 1941
IIP - Indian Institute of Petroleum Uttarakhand Dehradun 1960
IMMT - Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology Odisha Bhubaneswar 1964
IMTECH - Institute of Microbial Technology Chandigarh Chandigarh 1984
IITR - Indian Institute of Toxicology Research Uttar Pradesh Lucknow 1965
NAL - National Aerospace Laboratories Karnataka Bengaluru 1959
NBRI - National Botanical Research Institute Uttar Pradesh Lucknow 1953
NCL - National Chemical Laboratory Maharashtra Pune 1950
NEERI - National Environmental Engineering Research Institute Maharashtra Nagpur 1958
NEIST (RRL), Jorhat - North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat Assam Jorhat 1961
NGRI - National Geophysical Research Institute Telangana Hyderabad 1961
NIIST - National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Kerala Thiruvananthapuram 1975
NIO - National Institute of Oceanography Goa Dona Paula 1966
NIScPR - National Institute of Science Communication and Policy Research Delhi New Delhi 2021
NML - National Metallurgical Laboratory Jharkhand Jamshedpur 1944
NPL - National Physical Laboratory Delhi New Delhi 1947
OSDD - Open Source Drug Discovery Delhi New Delhi 2008
SERC - Structural Engineering Research Centre Tamil Nadu Chennai 1965
URDIP - Unit for Research and Development of Information Products Maharashtra Pune 2010


18 journals and 3 popular science magazines (Science Reporter and its Hindi, Urdu editions) are available under open access from NOPR website.[28]

See also


  1. ^ "India Budget" (PDF). [bare URL PDF]
  2. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica (23 December 2023). "Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  3. ^ "National Testing Agency". Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  4. ^ a b "CSIR Annual Report 2014" (PDF).
  5. ^ a b "Council of Scientific & Industrial Research – GoI". Archived from the original on 17 August 2000.
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Minister of S&T claims India made 1,300-odd inventions in a decade". Archived from the original on 28 July 2008.
  8. ^ a b Vigyan Prasar Science Portal. "Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar". Vigyan Prasar. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  9. ^ a b Sivaram C (2002). "The genesis of CSIR" (PDF). Resonance. 7 (4): 98. doi:10.1007/BF02836144. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2015.
  10. ^ Sivaram S (2002). "Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar: A Visionary Extraordinary" (PDF). Resonance. 7 (4): 90–97. doi:10.1007/bf02836142. S2CID 121018197. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Organisational Structure | Council of Scientific & Industrial Research | GoI". Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  12. ^ Sarah E. Boslaugh, ed. (15 September 2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781506346182. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  13. ^ Reddy, K. Anji (15 January 2015). An Unfinished Agenda: My Life in the Pharmaceuticals Industry By K Anji Reddy. Penguin UK. ISBN 9789351189213. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  14. ^ Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute
  15. ^ "History". Mahindra Swaraj. 2009. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013.
  16. ^ Angier, Natalie (22 March 1990). "Bamboo Coaxed to Flower in Lab; Global Impact on the Crop Is Seen". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  17. ^ Nadgauda, R. S.; Parasharami, V. A.; Mascarenhas, A. F. (22 March 1990). "Precocious flowering and seeding behaviour in tissue-cultured bamboos". Nature. 344 (6264): 335. Bibcode:1990Natur.344..335N. doi:10.1038/344335a0. S2CID 4308334.
  18. ^ Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Singh, Lalji; Reddy, Alla G.; Rao, V.Raghavendra; Sehgal, Subhash C.; Underhill, Peter A.; Pierson, Melanie; Frame, Ian G.; Hagelberg, Erika (2003) [21 January 2003]. "Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population". Current Biology. 13 (2): 86–93. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01336-2. PMID 12546781. S2CID 12155496.
  19. ^ "Showcasing the CSIR". The Hindu. Thiruvananthapuram, India. 8 May 2003. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013.
  20. ^ "Flosolver Division" (PDF). Brief description of the history of the NAL Flosolver Division and its current work. National Aerospace Laboratories, India. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  21. ^ "CSIR-Achievements". CSIR, India. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  22. ^ "TCS bio-suite unveiled". The Hindu. Hyderabad, India. 15 July 2004. Archived from the original on 19 September 2011.
  23. ^ R. Guruprasad (2004). "The Saga of Saras: Part 1" (PDF). [PD IM 0407] History and details of the inception and development of Saras. National Aerospace Laboratories, India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  24. ^ "CSIR chief stress on non-patent literature database". Business Line. 23 September 2000. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013.
  25. ^ "Biopiracy and traditional knowledge". The Hindu. India. 20 May 2001. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014.
  26. ^ a b Singh, Jyoti (22 April 2020). "Indian Researchers Plan Clinical Trials of Sepsis Drug Against New Coronavirus". The Wire Science. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  27. ^ [1][dead link]
  28. ^ "NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) : Home". 2015. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.

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