New Year's Day

First day of the year in the Gregorian calendar; 1 January

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Day is the first day of the calendar year, 1 January. Most solar calendars (like the Gregorian and Julian) begin the year regularly at or near the northern winter solstice, while cultures and religions that observe a lunisolar or lunar calendar celebrate their Lunar New Year at less fixed points relative to the solar year.

In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is also named. From Roman times until the middle of the 18th century, the new year was celebrated at various stages and in various parts of Christian Europe on 25 December, on 1 March, on 25 March and on the movable feast of Easter.[2][3][4]

In the present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their civil calendar, 1 January according to Gregorian calendar is among the most celebrated of public holidays in the world, often observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight following New Year's Eve as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family.[1]

Fireworks in London at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Day 2014
Fireworks in Rome at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Day 2012


The ancient Babylonian calendar was lunisolar, and around the year 2000 BC[5] began observing a spring festival and the new year during the month of Nisan, around the time of the March equinox. The early Roman calendar designated 1 March as the first day of the year.[6] The calendar had just 10 months, beginning with March. That the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through to December, the ninth through to the twelfth months of the Gregorian calendar, were originally positioned as the seventh through to the tenth months. (Septem is Latin for "seven"; octo, "eight"; novem, "nine"; and decem, "ten") Roman mythology usually credits their second king Numa with the establishment of the two new months of Ianuarius and Februarius. These were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead.[7]

The January kalend (Latin: Kalendae Ianuariae), the start of the month of January, came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC as a result of the rebellion in Hispania which began the second Celtiberian War. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, and making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still, private and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for 1 January's new status.[8] Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family gatherings and celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence.[9][10]

New Year's Day in the older Julian calendar

In Christendom, 1 January traditionally marks the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. The calendar became the predominant calendar in the Roman Empire and subsequently, most of the Western world for more than 1,600 years. The Roman calendar began the year on 1 January, and this remained the start of the year after the Julian reform. However, even after local calendars were aligned to the Julian calendar, they started the new year on different dates. The Alexandrian calendar in Egypt started on 29 August (30 August after an Alexandrian leap year). Several local provincial calendars were aligned to start on the birthday of the Emperor Augustus, 23 September. The indiction caused the Byzantine year, which used the Julian calendar, to begin on 1 September; this date is still used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for the beginning of the liturgical year.

At various times and in various places throughout mediaeval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on 25 December in honour of the birth of Jesus; 1 March in the old Roman style; 25 March in honour of Lady Day (the Feast of the Annunciation, the date of the conception of Jesus); and on the movable feast of Easter.[2][4]

Christian observance

As a date in the Christian calendar, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, which is still observed as such in the Anglican Church, the Lutheran Church,[11][12] the Eastern Orthodox Church (Julian calendar, see below) and in Traditional Catholicism by those who retain the usage of the General Roman Calendar of 1960. The mainstream Roman Catholic Church celebrates on this day the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God.[13]

Gift giving

Among the 7th-century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts at the winter solstice. This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius (died 659 or 660), who warned the Flemish and Dutch: "(Do not) make visuals, [little figures of the Old Woman], little deer or iotticos or set tables [for the house-elf, compare Puck] at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks [another Yule custom]."[14] However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the Feast of the Circumcision, they exchanged Christmas presents because the feast fell within the 12 days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar;[15] The custom of exchanging Christmas gifts in a Christian context is traced back to the Biblical Magi who gave gifts to the Christ Child.[16][17] In Tudor England, 1 January (as the Feast of the Circumcision, not New Year's Day), along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide.[18]

Acceptance of 1 January as New Year's Day

Most nations of Europe and their colonies officially adopted 1 January as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian calendar. France changed to 1 January from 1564, most of Germany did so from 1544, the Netherlands from 1556 or 1573 according to sect, Italy (pre-unification) did so on a variety of dates, Spain and Portugal from 1556, Sweden, Norway and Denmark from 1599, Scotland from 1600, and Russia from 1725.[2] England, Wales, Ireland, and Britain's American colonies adopted 1 January as New Year's Day from 1752.[2][4]

Great Britain and the British Empire

Until 1752 (except Scotland),[a] the Kingdom of Great Britain and the British Empire at the time had retained 25 March as the official start of the year, although informal use of 1 January had become common.[b] With the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, Britain and the Empire formally adopted 1 January as New Year's Day and, with the same Act, also discarded the Julian calendar (though the actions are otherwise unrelated). The Act came into effect "following the last said day of December 1751".[19][c]

By 1750, adjustments needed to be made for an eleven-day difference between the older Julian calendar and the newer (and more accurate) Gregorian calendar. There was some religious dissent regarding feast days being moved, especially Christmas Day (see Old Christmas), and isolated communities continued the old reckoning to a greater or lesser extent. The years 1800 and 1900 were leap years in the Julian calendar but not in the Gregorian, so the difference increased to twelve days, then thirteen. The year 2000 was a leap year in both calendars.

Eastern Orthodoxy

At various stages during the first half of the twentieth century, all countries in Eastern Christendom adopted the Gregorian calendar as their civil calendar but continued, and have continued into modern times, to use the Julian Calendar for ecclesiastical purposes. As 1 January (Julian) equates to 14 January (Gregorian), a religious celebration of the New Year on this date may seem strange to Western eyes.

New Year's Day in other calendars

In cultures and religions that traditionally or currently use calendars other than the Gregorian, New Year's Day is often also an important celebration. Some countries concurrently use Gregorian and another calendar. New Year's Day in the alternative calendar attracts alternative celebrations of that new year:


  • Nayrouz and Enkutatash are the New Year's Days of the Coptic Egyptians and the Ethiopians, respectively. Between 1900 and 2100, both occur on 11 September in most years and on 12 September in the years before Gregorian leap years. They preserve the legacy of the ancient Egyptian new year Wept Renpet, which originally marked the onset of the Nile flood but which wandered through the seasons until the introduction of leap years to the traditional calendar by Augustus in 30-20 BC. In Ethiopia, the new year is held to mark the end of the summer rainy season.
  • The Odunde Festival is also called the African New Year is celebrated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States on the second Sunday of June. While the name was based on the Yoruba African culture, its celebration marks the largest African celebration in the world, which more or less was started by a local tradition.[22]
  • The Sotho people of Lesotho and South Africa celebrate Selemo sa Basotho on 1 August during the end of the Southern Hemisphere's winter. This is based on the Sotho calendar, and includes observances such as "Mokete wa lewa", a celebration that follows the harvest.

East Asian

  • Chinese New Year is celebrated in some countries in East Asia, including China, and some in Southeast Asia, including Singapore. It is the first day of the traditional Chinese calendar, a lunar calendar that is corrected for the solar changes every three years (i.e. a lunisolar calendar). The holiday normally falls between 20 January and 20 February.[23] The holiday is celebrated with food, family, lucky money (usually in a red envelope), and many other red things that are believed to bring good luck. Lion and dragon dances, drums, fireworks, firecrackers, and other types of entertainment fill the streets on this day. 1 January is also a legal holiday in China, and people celebrate the Gregorian New Year on this day, but it is not as grand as the traditional Chinese New Year.[24]
First sunrise at Oarai Isosaki Jinja
  • Japanese New Year is celebrated on 1 January because the Gregorian calendar is now used in Japan instead of the Chinese calendar (which was in use until 1873).[25]
  • Korean New Year is celebrated on the first day of the traditional Korean calendar in South Korea. The first day of this lunisolar calendar, called Seollal (설날), is an important national holiday (along with Chuseok),[26] with a minimum of three days off work and school. Koreans celebrate New Year's Day by preparing food for their ancestors' spirits, visiting ancestors' graves, and playing Korean games such as yunnori with families and friends. Young children show respect to their parents, grandparents, relatives, and other elders by bowing down in a traditional way and are given good wishes and some money by the elders.
    • In addition, South Koreans celebrate the 1 January New Year's Day of the Gregorian Calendar, and as a national holiday, people have the day off. The Gregorian calendar is now the official civil calendar in South Korea, so the populace now considers the 1 January New Year's Day the first day of the year. South Koreans calculate their age using the East Asian age reckoning method, with all South Koreans adding a year to their age at midnight of the New Year (of the Gregorian, not the Korean calendar).[27] Families enjoy the New Year by counting down to midnight on New Year's Eve on 31 December.
  • North Koreans celebrate the New Year's Day holiday on the first day of the Gregorian calendar, 1 January. This New Year's Day, also called Seollal, is a big holiday in North Korea, while they take a day off on the first day of the Korean calendar.[clarification needed] The first day of the Korean calendar is regarded as a day for relaxation, but North Koreans consider the first day of the Gregorian calendar to be even more important.[citation needed]

Southeast Asian

  • Cambodian New Year (Chaul Chnam Thmey) is celebrated on 13 April or 14 April. There are three days for the Khmer New Year: the first day is called "Moha Songkran", the second is called "Virak Wanabat" and the final day is called "Virak Loeurng Sak". During these periods, Cambodians often go to the pagoda or play traditional games. Phnom Penh is usually quiet during Khmer New Year as most Cambodians prefer spending it at their respective hometowns.
  • Thai New Year is celebrated on 13 April or 14 April and is called Songkran in the local language. People usually come out to splash water on one another. The throwing of water originated as a blessing. By capturing the water after it had been poured over the Buddhas for cleansing, this "blessed" water is gently poured on the shoulder of elders and family for good fortune.
  • Thingyan, Burmese new year's celebrations, typically begin on 13 April but the actual New Year's Day falls on 17 April in the 21st century. The day has slowly drifted over the centuries. In the 20th century, the day fell on 15 or 16 April while in the 17th century, it fell on 9 or 10 April.
  • Vietnamese New Year (Tết Nguyên Đán or Tết), more commonly known by its shortened name Tết or "Vietnamese Lunar New Year", is the most important and popular holiday and festival in Vietnam, the holiday normally falls between 20 January and 20 February. It is the Vietnamese New Year marking the arrival of spring based on the Chinese calendar, a lunisolar calendar. The name Tết Nguyên Đán is Sino-Vietnamese for Feast of the First Morning, derived from the Hán nôm characters 節 元 旦.

South Asian

  • Diwali related New Year's celebrations include Marwari new year and Gujarati new year.
  • Indian New Year's days has several variations depending on the region and is based on the Hindu calendar.
  • Hindu In Hinduism, different regional cultures celebrate the new year at different times of the year. In Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Nepal, Odisha, Punjab, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu households celebrate the new year when the Sun enters Aries on the Hindu calendar. This is normally on 14 April or 15 April, depending on the leap year. Elsewhere in northern/central India, the Vikram Samvat calendar is followed. According to that, the new year day is the first day of the Chaitra Month, also known as Chaitra Shukla Pratipada or Gudi Padwa. This is basically the first month of the Hindu calendar, the first Shukla paksha (fortnight) and the first day. This normally comes around 23–24 March, mostly around the Spring Equinox in Gregorian Calendar. The new year is celebrated by paying respect to elders in the family and by seeking their blessings. They also exchange tokens of good wishes for a healthy and prosperous year ahead.
  • Malayalam New Year (Puthuvarsham) is celebrated either on the first day of the month of Medam in mid-April which is known as Vishu, or the first day of the month of Chingam, in the Malayalam Calendar in mid-August according to another reckoning. Unlike most other calendar systems in India, the New Year's Day on the Malayalam Calendar is not based on any astronomical event. It is just the first day of the first of the 12 months on the Malayalam Calendar. The Malayalam Calendar (called Kollavarsham) originated in 825 AD, based on general agreement among scholars, with the re-opening of the city of Kollam (on Malabar Coast), which had been destroyed by a natural disaster.
  • Nepal Sambat is the Nepalese New Year celebration specially by the Newar community. Nepali ethnic groups like Gurung, Sherpa and Tamang celebrate Lhosar. While officially Baisakh ek gatey is celebrated. However, there is increased demand from Nepalese of all ethnicity to replace Vikram Sambat with Nepal Sambat as Nepal Sambat is indigenous to Nepal while Vikram Sambat came from India.
  • Pahela Baishakh or Bangla Nabobarsho is the first day of the Bengali Calendar. It is celebrated on 14 April as a national holiday in Bangladesh, and on 14 or 15 April in the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, and part of Assam by people of Bengali heritage, irrespective of their religious faith.
  • The Sikh New Year is celebrated as per the Nanakshahi calendar. The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak in 1469. New Year's Day falls annually on what is 14 March in the Gregorian Western calendar.[28]
  • Sinhalese New Year is celebrated in Sri Lankan culture predominantly by the Sri Lankan Sinhalese, while the Tamil New Year on the same day is celebrated by Sri Lankan Tamils. The Sinhalese New Year (aluth avurudda), marks the end of the harvest season, by the month of Bak (April) between 13 and 14 April. There is an astrologically generated time gap between the passing year and the New Year, which is based on the passing of the sun from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries) in the celestial sphere. The astrological time difference between the New Year and the passing year (nonagathe) is celebrated with several Buddhist rituals and customs that are to be concentrated on, which are exclusive of all types of 'work'. After Buddhist rituals and traditions are attended to, Sinhala and Tamil New Year-based social gatherings and festive parties with the aid of firecrackers, and fireworks would be organized. The exchange of gifts, cleanliness, the lighting of the oil lamp, making kiribath (milk rice), and even the Asian Koel are significant aspects of the Sinhalese New Year.
  • Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated on 13 April or 14 April. Traditionally, it is celebrated as Chiththirai Thirunaal in parts of Tamil Nadu to mark the event of the Sun entering Aries. Panchangam (almanac), is read in temples to mark the start of the Year.
  • Telugu New Year (Ugadi), Kannada New Year (Yugadi) is celebrated in March (generally), April (occasionally). Traditionally, it is celebrated as Chaitram Chaitra Shuddha Padyami in parts of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Karnataka to mark the event of New Year's Day for the people of the Deccan region of India. It falls on a different day every year because the Hindu calendar is a lunisolar calendar. The Saka calendar begins with the month of Chaitra (March–April) and Ugadi/Yugadi marks the first day of the new year. Chaitra is the first month in Panchanga which is the Indian calendar. Panchangam (almanac), is read in temples to mark the start of the Year.

Middle Eastern

The major religions of the Middle East are Islam and Judaism: their adherents worldwide celebrate the first day of their respective new religious calendar years.


The two primary sects of Islam are Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. They have different calendars though for both the epoch of the calendar is the Hijrah.

  • Islamic New Year (or "Hijri New Year", Arabic: رأس السنة الهجرية Ras as-Sanah al-Hijriyah)) is the day in Sunni Islamic culture that marks the beginning of a new year in the Lunar Hijri calendar. It disregards the solar year: its New Year's Day is on a different Gregorian date each year because it is a lunar calendar, making it on average 11 to 12 days shorter than a solar year. The first day of the year is observed on the first day of Muharram, the first month in this calendar.
  • Nowruz marks the first day of spring and the beginning of the year in the Solar Hijri calendar (one of the Iranian calendars). It is celebrated on the day of the astronomical Northern spring equinox, which usually occurs on or about 20 March (Gregorian calendar). Nowruz has been celebrated for over 3,000 years by the cultural continent of Iran, including Kurdistan and Afghanistan. The holiday is also celebrated and observed by many parts of Central Asia, South Asia, Northwestern China, Crimea and some groups in the Balkans. As well as being a Zoroastrian holiday and having significance amongst the Zoroastrian ancestors of modern Iranians, the same time is celebrated in the Indian sub-continent as the new year. The moment the Sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year and Iranian families gather together to observe the rituals.


  • Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year), is celebrated by Jews in Israel and throughout the world. The date is the new moon of Tishrei, which is the seventh month counting from Nisan, the first month of Spring. It always falls during September or October. The holiday is celebrated by blasting of shofar trumpets, to signify it as a day of judgment, by prayers of penitence, by readings from the law and prophets, and by special meals. The night of 31 December/1 January, the New Year according to the Gregorian calendar, is also celebrated widely in Israel and is referred to as Sylvester or the civil new year.[29]


According to a convention established by NASA, the Martian year begins on its Northward equinox, the spring equinox of its northern hemisphere. Its most recent New Year's Day (of MY 37) coincided with 26 December 2022 on Earth's Gregorian calendar.[30] New Year's Day of MY 38 will coincide with 12 November 2024.

Traditional and modern celebrations and customs

New Year's Eve

The first of January represents the fresh start of a new year after a period of remembrance of the passing year, including on radio, television, and in newspapers, which starts in early December in countries around the world. Publications have year-end articles that review the changes during the previous year. In some cases, publications may set their entire year's work alight in the hope that the smoke emitted from the flame brings new life to the company. There are also articles on planned or expected changes in the coming year.

This day is traditionally a religious feast, but since the 1900s has also become an occasion to celebrate the night of 31 December—New Year's Eve—with parties, public celebrations (often involving fireworks shows) and other traditions focused on the impending arrival of midnight and the new year. Watchnight services are also still observed by many.[31]

New Year's Day

Pisan New Year's Day celebrations
The Golden Hall of the Wiener Musikverein, traditional site of the Vienna New Year's Concert.
A The Wizard of Oz-themed float at the 2023 Tournament of Roses Parade.
A scene of the "polar bear plunge", or Nieuwjaarsduik, at Scheveningen, Netherlands.

The celebrations and activities held worldwide on 1 January as part of New Year's Day commonly include the following:


Music associated with New Year's Day comes in both classical and popular genres, and there is also Christmas song focus on the arrival of a new year during the Christmas and holiday season.

  • Paul Gerhardt wrote the text for a hymn for the turn of the year, "Nun lasst uns gehn und treten", first published in 1653.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach, in the Orgelbüchlein, composed three chorale preludes for the new year: Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen ["Help me to praise God's goodness"] (BWV 613); Das alte Jahr vergangen ist ["The old year has passed"] (BWV 614); and In dir ist freude ["In you is joy"] (BWV 615).[42]
  • The year is gone, beyond recall is a traditional Christian hymn to give thanks for the new year, dating back to 1713.[43]
  • In English-speaking countries, it is traditional to sing Auld Lang Syne at midnight on New Year's.

New Year's Day babies

A common image used, often as an editorial cartoon, is that of an incarnation of Father Time (or the "Old Year") wearing a sash across his chest with the previous year printed on it passing on his duties to the Baby New Year (or the "New Year"), an infant wearing a sash with the new year printed on it.[44]

Babies born on New Year's Day are commonly called New Year babies. Hospitals, such as the Dyersburg Regional Medical Center[45] in the US, give out prizes to the first baby born in that hospital in the new year. These prizes are often donated by local businesses. Prizes may include various baby-related items such as baby formula, baby blankets, diapers, and gift certificates to stores which specialise in baby-related merchandise.


On New Year's Day in Antarctica, the stake marking the geographic south pole is moved approximately 10 meters to compensate for the movement of the ice. A new marker stake is designed and made each year by staff at the site nearby.

Other celebrations on 1 January

The Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Church and the Lutheran Church celebrate the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ on 1 January, based on the belief that if Jesus was born on 25 December, then according to Hebrew tradition, his circumcision would have taken place on the eighth day of his life (1 January). The Roman Catholic Church celebrates on this day the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God, which is also a Holy Day of Obligation.

Johann Sebastian Bach composed several church cantatas for the double occasion:

  • Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, BWV 190, 1 January 1724
  • Jesu, nun sei gepreiset, BWV 41, 1 January 1725
  • Herr Gott, dich loben wir, BWV 16, 1 January 1726
  • Gott, wie dein Name, so ist auch dein Ruhm, BWV 171, 1 January 1729(?)
  • Fallt mit Danken, fallt mit Loben, 1 January 1735 (Christmas Oratorio Part IV)

See also


  1. ^ Scotland had already adopted 1 January, since 1600
  2. ^ For example, see Pepys, Samuel. "Tuesday 31 December 1661". I sat down to end my journey for this year, ... (The Diary of Samuel Pepys)
  3. ^ This syntax was needed because, according to the standard of the time the Bill was being written, the next day would still have been 1751.


  1. ^ a b Mehra, Komal (2006). Festivals Of The World. Sterling Publishers. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-8455-7574-8. In many European countries like Italy, Portugal and Netherlands, families start the new year by attending church services and then calling on friends and relatives. Italian children receive gifts or money on New Year's Day. People in the United States go to church, give parties and enjoy other forms of entertainment.
  2. ^ a b c d "New Year's Day: Julian and Gregorian Calendars". 8 May 2004. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  3. ^ Poole, Reginald L. (1921). The Beginning of the Year in the Middle Ages. Proceedings of the British Academy. Vol. X. London: British Academy. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021 – via Hathi Trust.
  4. ^ a b c Bond, John James (1875). Handy Book of Rules and Tables for Verifying Dates With the Christian Era Giving an Account of the Chief Eras and Systems Used by Various Nations...'. London: George Bell & Sons. p. 91.
  5. ^ Andrews, Evan (31 December 2012). "5 Ancient New Year's Celebrations". History News. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  6. ^ Brunner, Borgna. "A History of the New Year". Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  7. ^ Forsythe, Gary (2012). Time in Roman Religion: One Thousand Years of Religious History. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-415-52217-5.
  8. ^ Michels, A.K. The Calendar of the Roman Republic (Princeton, 1967), pp. 97–98.
  9. ^ Macrobius, Book I, Ch. xiii, §17.
  10. ^ Kaster (2011), p. 163.
  11. ^ McKim, Donald K. (1996). Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-664-22089-1.
  12. ^ Hobart, John Henry (1840). A Companion for the festivals and fasts of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Stanford & Co. p. 284.
  13. ^ "New year celebrations have changed throughout history". 30 December 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  14. ^ Quoting the Vita of St. Eligius written by Ouen.
  15. ^ Forbes, Bruce David (1 October 2008). Christmas: A Candid History. University of California Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-520-25802-0. Some people referred to New Year gifts as "Christmas presents" because New Year's Day fell within the 12 days of Christmas, but in spite of the name they still were gifts given on January 1.
  16. ^ Collins, Ace (4 May 2010). Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Harper Collins. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-310-87388-4. Most people today trace the practice of giving gifts on Christmas Day to the three gifts that the Magi gave to Jesus.
  17. ^ Berking, Helmuth (30 March 1999). Sociology of Giving. SAGE Publications. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7619-5648-8. The winter solstice was a time of festivity in every traditional culture, and the Christian Christmas probably took its place within this mythical context of the solar cult. Its core dogma of the Incarnation, however, solidly established the giving and receiving of gifts as the structural principle of that recurrent yet unique event. 'Children were given presents as the Jesus child received gifts from the magi or kings who came from afar to adore him. But in reality, it was they, together with all their fellow men, who received the gift of God through man's renewed participation in the divine life' (ibid.: 61).
  18. ^ Sim, Alison (8 November 2011). Pleasures and Pastimes in Tudor England. The History Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7524-5031-5. Most of the 12 days of Christmas were saints' days, but the main three days for the celebration were Christmas Day, New Year's Day and Epiphany, or Twelfth Night.
  19. ^ "Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 | 1750 CHAPTER 23 24 Geo 2 | Section 1". Parliament of Great Britain. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  20. ^ "Gwaun Valley children mark old New Year". BBC News. 13 January 2012. Archived from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  21. ^ "Foula". Official Gateway to the Shetland Islands. Archived from the original on 20 July 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  22. ^ Gregg, Cherri (13 May 2013). "Oshunbumi Fernandez, Caring Through Culture and Odunde 365". CBS Philadelphia. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  23. ^ Aslaksen, Helmer (17 July 2010). "The Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar" (PDF). S2CID 140809406. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  24. ^ Wei, Liming (2010). Chinese Festivals: Traditions, Customs and Rituals. Translated by Yue Liwen & Tao Lang (2nd ed.). Beijing: China Intercontinental Press. pp. 62–64. ISBN 978-7-5085-1693-6.
  25. ^ Thomas, Russell (9 December 2023). "A Tokyoite's guide to a Western-style New Year's Eve". The Japan Times. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  26. ^ Encyclopedia of Korean Seasonal Customs. South Korea: The National Folk Museum of Korea. 2014. pp. 30–46. ISBN 978-89-92128-92-6.
  27. ^ Kim, Hyung-Jin (12 April 2019). "South Korean babies born Dec. 31 legally become 2-year-olds the very next day". Denver Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 November 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  28. ^ "Nanakshahi Calendar". Archived from the original on 25 November 2005. Retrieved 30 November 2005. Nanakshahi Calendar at
  29. ^ Mintz, Josh (2 January 2012). "The Hypocrisy of Turning New Year's Eve in Israel Into a Nonevent". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  30. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (26 December 2022). "Happy New Year on Mars! NASA rings in Red Planet year 37". Archived from the original on 28 December 2022. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  31. ^ "Watch Night services provide a spiritual way to bring in New Year". The United Methodist Church. pp. 288–294. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011. The service is loosely constructed with singing, spontaneous prayers, and testimonials, and readings, including the Covenant Renewal service from The United Methodist Book of Worship
  32. ^ "History of America's State Parks First Day Hikes". California Department of Parks and Recreation. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
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  • Macrobius, Saturnaliorum Libri VII. (in Latin)
  • Macrobius (2011), Kaster, Robert A. (ed.), Saturnalia, Vol. I, Loeb Classical Library, No. 510, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-99649-6. (in English) & (in Latin)

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