Country in West Africa

  • Jamhuriyar Tarayyar Najeriya (Hausa)
  • Ọ̀hàńjíkọ̀ Ọ̀hànézè Naìjíríyà (Igbo)
  • Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìniira Àpapọ̀ Nàìjíríà (Yoruba)
Flag of Nigeria
Coat of arms of Nigeria
Motto: "Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress"Anthem: "Nigeria, We Hail Thee"
Show globe
Show map of Africa
  • Hausa
  • Igbo
  • Yoruba
Regional languages[2]Over 525 languages[1]Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)NigerianGovernmentFederal presidential republic
• President
Bola Tinubu
• Vice President
Kashim Shettima
• Senate President
Godswill Akpabio
• House Speaker
Tajudeen Abbas
• Chief Justice
Olukayode Ariwoola LegislatureNational Assembly
• Upper house
• Lower house
House of RepresentativesIndependence 
from the United Kingdom
• Northern Nigeria Protectorate
1 January 1900
• Southern Nigeria Protectorate
1 January 1900
• Unification of Nigeria
1 January 1914
• Declared independent as a sovereign state
1 October 1960
• Became a republic
1 October 1963
• Current constitution
29 May 1999 Area
• Total
923,769 km2 (356,669 sq mi) (31st)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 230,842,743[4] (6th)
• Density
249.8/km2 (647.0/sq mi) (42nd)GDP medium
HDI (2022)Increase 0.548[7]
low (161st)CurrencyNaira (₦) (NGN)Time zoneUTC+01:00 (WAT)Date formatdd/mm/yyyyDriving sideright[8]Calling code+234ISO 3166 codeNGInternet

Nigeria,[a] officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa.[9] It is situated between the Sahel to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south in the Atlantic Ocean. It covers an area of 923,769 square kilometres (356,669 sq mi). With a population of more than 230 million, it is the most populous country in Africa, and the world's sixth-most populous country. Nigeria borders Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Nigeria is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The largest city in Nigeria is Lagos, one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and the largest in Africa.

Nigeria has been home to several indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms since the second millennium BC, with the Nok civilization in the 15th century BC marking the first internal unification.[10] The modern state originated with British colonialization in the 19th century, taking its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms.[11] Nigeria became a formally independent federation on 1 October 1960. It experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970, followed by a succession of military dictatorships and democratically elected civilian governments until achieving a stable government in the 1999 Nigerian presidential election, with the election of Olusegun Obasanjo of the Peoples Democratic Party. However, the country frequently experiences electoral fraud, and corruption is rampant in various levels of Nigerian politics.

Nigeria is a multinational state inhabited by more than 250 ethnic groups speaking 500 distinct languages, all identifying with a wide variety of cultures.[12][13][14] The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa in the north, Yoruba in the west, and Igbo in the east, together constituting over 60% of the total population.[15] The official language is English, chosen to facilitate linguistic unity at the national level.[16] Nigeria's constitution ensures de jure freedom of religion,[17] and it is home to some of the world's largest Muslim and Christian populations.[18] Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Muslims, who live mostly in the north part of the country, and Christians, who live mostly in the south; indigenous religions, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities, are in the minority.[19]

Nigeria is a regional power in Africa and a middle power in international affairs. Nigeria's economy is the fourth-largest in Africa, the 53rd-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and 27th-largest by PPP. Nigeria is often referred to as the Giant of Africa owing to its large population and economy,[20] and is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, NAM,[21] the Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC. It is also a member of the informal MINT group of countries and is one of the Next Eleven economies.


The name Nigeria derives from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined on 8 January 1897, by the British journalist Flora Shaw. The neighbouring Republic of Niger takes its name from the same river. The origin of the name Niger, which originally applied to only the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu before 19th-century European colonialism.[22][23] Before Flora Shaw suggested the name Nigeria, other proposed names included Royal Niger Company Territories, Central Sudan, Niger Empire, Niger Sudan, and Hausa Territories.[24]



Kainji Dam excavations showed ironworking by the 2nd century BC. The transition from Neolithic times to the Iron Age was accomplished without intermediate bronze production. Some have suggested the technology moved west from the Nile Valley. But the Iron Age in the Niger River valley and the forest region appears to predate the introduction of metallurgy in the upper savanna by more than 800 years, as well as predating it in the Nile Valley. More recent research suggests that iron metallurgy was developed independently in sub-Saharan Africa.[25][26][27][28]

Nok sculpture, terracotta

The Nok civilization thrived between 1,500 BC and AD 200. It produced life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in sub-Saharan Africa[29][30][31][32][33] and smelted iron by about 550 BC and possibly a few centuries earlier.[25][26][27] Evidence of iron smelting has also been excavated at sites in the Nsukka region of southeast Nigeria: dating to 2000 BC at the site of Lejja[34] and to 750 BC and at the site of Opi.

Early history

Royal Benin ivory mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized artifacts. Benin Empire, 16th century.

The Kano Chronicle highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Hausa Sahelian city-state of Kano, with other major Hausa cities (or Hausa Bakwai) of Daura, Hadeija, Kano, Katsina, Zazzau, Rano, and Gobir all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. With the spread of Islam from the 7th century AD, the area became known as Sudan or as Bilad Al Sudan (English: Land of the Blacks). Since the populations were partially affiliated with the Arab Muslim culture of North Africa, they began trans-Saharan trade and were referred to by the Arabic speakers as Al-Sudan (meaning "The Blacks") as they were considered an extended part of the Muslim world. There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem–Bornu Empire as the region's major centre for Islamic civilization.[citation needed]

The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911.[35][36] Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri.[37] In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence.[35]

The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th[38][39] and 14th[40] centuries, respectively. The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century,[38] and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures.

Pre-colonial era

Depiction of Benin City by a Dutch illustrator in 1668. The wall-like structure in the centre probably represents the walls of Benin, housing the Benin bronze decorated historic Benin City Palace.

In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin important, direct trade with the peoples of southern Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos (formerly Eko) and in Calabar along the region Slave Coast. Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade.[41] The port of Calabar on the historical Bight of Biafra (now commonly referred to as the Bight of Bonny) became one of the largest slave-trading posts in West Africa in this era. Other major slaving ports were located in Badagry, Lagos on the Bight of Benin, and Bonny Island on the Bight of Biafra.[41][42] The majority of those taken to these ports were captured in raids and wars.[43] Usually, the captives were taken back to the conquerors' territory as forced labour; they were sometimes gradually acculturated and absorbed into the conquerors' society. Slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports. Some of the more prolific slave-trading kingdoms who participated in the Atlantic slave trade were linked with the Edo's Benin Empire in the south, Oyo Empire in the southwest, and the Aro Confederacy in the southeast.[41][42] Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th centuries.[44] Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo.

In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Bornu Empire allowed the Fulani people to gain headway into the region. Until this point, the Fulani, a nomadic ethnic group, primarily traversed the semi-desert Sahelian region north of Sudan with cattle and avoided trade and intermingling with the Sudanic peoples. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms, founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate. This empire, with Arabic as its official language, grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. The vast landlocked empire connected the east with the western Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering parts of the Oyo Empire (modern-day Kwara), and advanced towards the Yoruba heartland of Ibadan, to reach the Atlantic Ocean. The territory controlled by the empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. The sultan sent out emirs to establish suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic civilization; the emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. By the 1890s, the largest slave population in the world, about two million, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. The use of slave labour was extensive, especially in agriculture.[45] By the time of its break-up in 1903 into various European colonies, the Sokoto Caliphate was one of the largest pre-colonial African states.[46]

A changing legal imperative (the outlawing of the Atlantic slave trade in 1807) and economic imperative (a desire for political and social stability) led most European powers to support the widespread cultivation of agricultural products, such as the palm, for use in European industry. The slave trade continued after the ban, as illegal smugglers purchased slaves along the coast from native slavers. Britain's West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. The rescued slaves were taken to Freetown, a colony in West Africa originally established by Lieutenant John Clarkson for the resettlement of slaves freed by Britain in North America after the American Revolutionary War.

British colonization

Britain intervened in the Lagos kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in 1851, deposing the slave-trade-friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye and signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January 1852. Britain annexed Lagos as a crown colony in August 1861 with the Lagos Treaty of Cession. British missionaries expanded their operations and travelled further inland. In 1864, Samuel Ajayi Crowther became the first African bishop of the Anglican Church.[47]

Flag of the Lagos Colony

In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the company had vastly succeeded in subjugating the independent southern kingdoms along the Niger River, the British conquered Benin in 1897, and, in the Anglo-Aro War (1901–1902), defeated other opponents. The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. In 1900, the company's territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the Southern Nigeria Protectorate as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire.

The Lord and Lady Lugard, 1908

By 1902, the British had begun plans to move north into the Sokoto Caliphate. British General Lord Frederick Lugard was tasked by the Colonial Office to implement the agenda. Lugard used rivalries between many of the emirs in the southern reach of the caliphate and the central Sokoto administration to prevent any defence as he worked towards the capital. As the British approached the city of Sokoto, Sultan Muhammadu Attahiru I organized a quick defence of the city and fought the advancing British-led forces. The British force quickly won, sending Attahiru I and thousands of followers on a Mahdist hijra. In the northeast, the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the British-controlled Borno Emirate which established Abubakar Garbai of Borno as ruler.

Emir of Kano with cavalry, 1911

In 1903, the British victory in the Battle of Kano gave them a logistical edge in pacifying the heartland of the Sokoto Caliphate and parts of the former Bornu Empire. On 13 March 1903, at the grand market square of Sokoto, the last vizier of the caliphate officially conceded to British rule. The British appointed Muhammadu Attahiru II as the new caliph. Lugard abolished the caliphate but retained the title sultan as a symbolic position in the newly organized Northern Nigeria Protectorate. This remnant became known as "Sokoto Sultanate Council". In June 1903, the British defeated the remaining northern forces of Attahiru. By 1906, all resistance to British rule had ended.

On 1 January 1914, the British formally united the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Administratively, Nigeria remained divided into the Northern and Southern Protectorates and Lagos Colony. Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy.[48] Christian missions established Western educational institutions in the protectorates. Under Britain's policy of indirect rule and validation of Islamic legitimist tradition, the Crown did not encourage the operation of Christian missions in the northern, Islamic part of the country.[49]

By the mid-20th century following World War II, a wave for independence was sweeping across Africa, in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence, successive constitutions legislated by the British government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis. By the eve of independence in 1960, regional differences in modern educational access were marked. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present day. Imbalances between north and south were expressed in Nigeria's political life as well. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria, slavery was abolished soon after colonialism.[50][42]

1953 postage stamp with portrait of Queen Elizabeth II
Nnamdi Azikiwe, first President of Nigeria (1963–1966)

Independence and federal republic

Nigeria gained a degree of self-rule in 1954, and full independence from the United Kingdom on 1 October 1960, as the Federation of Nigeria with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as its prime minister, while retaining the British monarch, Elizabeth II, as nominal head of state and Queen of Nigeria. Azikiwe replaced the colonial governor-general in November 1960. At independence, the cultural and political differences were sharp among Nigeria's dominant ethnic groups: the Hausa in the north, Igbo in the east and Yoruba in the west.[51] The Westminster system of government was retained, and thus the President's powers were generally ceremonial.[52] The parliamentary system of government had Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as Prime Minister and Nnamdi Azikiwe as the ceremonial president. The founding government was a coalition of conservative parties: the Northern People's Congress led by Sir Ahmadu Bello, a party dominated by Muslim northerners, and the Igbo and Christian-dominated National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons led by Nnamdi Azikiwe. The opposition consisted of the comparatively liberal Action Group, which was largely dominated by the Yoruba and led by Obafemi Awolowo. An imbalance was created in the polity as the result of the 1961 plebiscite. Southern Cameroons opted to join the Republic of Cameroon while Northern Cameroons chose to join Nigeria. The northern part of the country became larger than the southern part.

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Nigeria's first Prime Minister during the 1st republic.

Fall of the First Republic and Civil War

The disequilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led to two military coups in 1966. The first coup was in January 1966 and was led mostly by soldiers under Majors Emmanuel Ifeajuna (of the Igbo tribe), Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu (Northerner of Eastern extraction) and Adewale Ademoyega (a Yoruba from the West). The coup plotters succeeded in assassinating Sir Ahmadu Bello and Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa alongside prominent leaders of the Northern Region and Premier Samuel Akintola of the Western Region, but the plotters struggled to form a central government. Senate President Nwafor Orizu handed over government control to the Army, under the command of another Igbo officer, Major General[53] Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi. Later, the counter-coup of 1966, supported primarily by Northern military officers, facilitated the rise of Yakubu Gowon as military head of state. Tension rose between north and south; Igbos in northern cities suffered persecution and many fled to the Eastern Region.[54]

The Republic of Biafra in June 1967, when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria

In May 1967, Governor of the Eastern Region Lt. Colonel Emeka Ojukwu declared the region independent from the federation as a state called the Republic of Biafra, as a result of the continuous and systematically planned attacks against Igbos and those of Eastern extraction popularly known as 1966 pogroms.[55][56] This declaration precipitated the Nigerian Civil War, which began as the official Nigerian government side attacked Biafra on 6 July 1967, at Garkem. The 30-month war, with a long blockade of Biafra and its isolation from trade and international relief, ended in January 1970.[57] Estimates of the number of dead in the former Eastern Region during the 30-month civil war range from one to three million.[58] Britain and the Soviet Union were the main military backers of the Nigerian government, with Nigeria utilizing air support from Egyptian pilots provided by Gamal Abdel Nasser,[59][60] while France and Israel aided the Biafrans. The Congolese government, under President Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, took an early stand on the Biafran secession, voicing strong support for the Nigerian federal government[61] and deploying thousands of troops to fight against the secessionists.[62][63]

Following the war, Nigeria enjoyed an oil boom in the 1970s, during which the country joined OPEC and received huge oil revenues. Despite these revenues, the military government did little to improve the standard of living, help small and medium businesses, or invest in infrastructure. As oil revenues fuelled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. As oil production and revenue rose, the Nigerian government became increasingly dependent on oil revenues and international commodity markets for budgetary and economic concerns.[64] The coup in July 1975, led by Generals Shehu Musa Yar'Adua and Joseph Garba, ousted Gowon,[65] who fled to Britain.[66] The coup plotters wanted to replace Gowon's autocratic rule with a triumvirate of three brigadier generals whose decisions could be vetoed by a Supreme Military Council. For this triumvirate, they convinced General Murtala Muhammed to become military head of state, with General Olusegun Obasanjo as his second-in-command, and General Theophilus Danjuma as the third.[67] Together, the triumvirate introduced austerity measures to stem inflation, established a Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau, replaced all military governors with new officers, and launched "Operation Deadwood" through which they fired 11,000 officials from the civil service.[68]

Colonel Buka Suka Dimka launched a February 1976 coup attempt,[69] during which General Murtala Muhammed was assassinated. Dimka lacked widespread support among the military, and his coup failed, forcing him to flee.[70] After the coup attempt, General Olusegun Obasanjo was appointed military head of state.[71] Obasanjo vowed to continue Murtala's policies.[72] Aware of the danger of alienating northern Nigerians, Obasanjo brought General Shehu Yar'Adua as his replacement and second-in-command as Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters completing the military triumvirate, with Obasanjo as head of state and General Theophilus Danjuma as Chief of Army Staff, the three went on to re-establish control over the military regime and organized the military's transfer of power programme: states creation and national delimitation, local government reforms and the constitutional drafting committee for a new republic.[73]

Second Republic and military dictatorship

The military carefully planned the return to civilian rule putting in place measures to ensure that political parties had broader support than witnessed during the first republic. In 1979, five political parties competed in a series of elections in which Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) was elected president. All five parties won representation in the National Assembly. On 1 October 1979, Shehu Shagari was sworn in as the first President and Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Obasanjo peacefully transferred power to Shagari, becoming the first head of state in Nigerian history to willingly step down.

Shehu Shagari was the first elected President of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983.

The Shagari government became viewed as corrupt by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society. In 1983, the inspectors of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation began to notice "the slow poisoning of the waters of this country".[74] In August 1983, Shagari and the NPN were returned to power in a landslide victory, with a majority of seats in the National Assembly and control of 12 state governments. But the elections were marred by violence, and allegations of widespread vote-rigging and electoral malfeasance led to legal battles over the results. There were also uncertainties, such as in the first republic, that political leaders may be unable to govern properly.

The 1983 military coup d'état was coordinated by key officers of the Nigerian military and led to the overthrow of the government and the installation of Major General Muhammadu Buhari as head of state. The military coup of Muhammadu Buhari shortly after the regime's re-election in 1984 was generally viewed as a positive development.[75] In 1985, Ibrahim Babangida overthrew Buhari in a coup d'état. In 1986, Babangida established the Nigerian Political Bureau which made recommendations for the transition to the Third Nigerian Republic. In 1989, Babangida started making plans for the transition to the Third Nigerian Republic. Babangida survived the 1990 Nigerian coup d'état attempt, then postponed a promised return to democracy to 1992.[76]

12 June and the crisis of the Third Republic

Babangida legalized the formation of political parties and formed the two-party system with the Social Democratic Party and National Republican Convention ahead of the 1992 general elections. He urged all Nigerians to join either of the parties, which Chief Bola Ige referred to as "two leper hands". The 1993 presidential election held on 12 June was the first since the military coup of 1983. The results, though not officially declared by the National Electoral Commission, showed the duo of Moshood Abiola and Baba Gana Kingibe of the Social Democratic Party defeated Bashir Tofa and Sylvester Ugoh of the National Republican Convention by over 2.3 million votes. However, Babangida annulled the elections, leading to massive civilian protests that effectively shut down the country for weeks. In August 1993, Babangida finally kept his promise to relinquish power to a civilian government but not before appointing Ernest Shonekan head of an interim national government.[77] Babangida's regime has been considered the most corrupt and responsible for creating a culture of corruption in Nigeria.[78]

Abdulsalami Abubakar, military ruler in 1998 saw the return to democracy in 1999

Shonekan's interim government, the shortest in the political history of the country, was overthrown in a coup d'état of 1993 led by General Sani Abacha, who used military force on a wide scale to suppress the continuing civilian unrest. In 1995, the government hanged environmentalist Ken Saro-Wiwa on trumped-up charges in the deaths of four Ogoni elders, which caused Nigerian's suspension from the Commonwealth. Lawsuits under the American Alien Tort Statute against Royal Dutch Shell and Brian Anderson, the head of Shell's Nigerian operation, settled out of court with Shell continuing to deny liability.[79] Several hundred million dollars in accounts traced to Abacha were discovered in 1999.[80] The regime came to an end in 1998 when the dictator died in the villa. He looted money to offshore accounts in western European banks and defeated coup plots by arresting and bribing generals and politicians. His successor, General Abdulsalami Abubakar, adopted a new constitution on 5 May 1999, which provided for multiparty elections.

Return to democracy (1999–present)

Olusegun Obasanjo served as president of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.

On 29 May 1999, Abubakar handed over power to the winner of the 1999 presidential election, former military ruler General Olusegun Obasanjo, as President of Nigeria. Obasanjo had been in prison under the dictatorship of Abacha. Obasanjo's inauguration heralded the beginning of the Fourth Nigerian Republic,[81] ending a 39-year period of short-lived democracies, civil war and military dictatorship. Although the elections that brought Obasanjo to power and allowed him to run for a second term in the 2003 presidential elections were condemned as unfree and unfair, Nigeria made significant progress in democratisation under Obasanjo.[82]

In the 2007 general elections, Umaru Yar'Adua of the People's Democratic Party came to power. The international community, which had observed the Nigerian elections to promote a free and fair process, condemned these elections as seriously flawed.[83] Yar'Adua died on 5 May 2010, and Vice President Goodluck Jonathan had been sworn in by the Senate three months earlier as acting president to succeed Yar'Adua.[84][85] Jonathan won the 2011 presidential election; the polls went smoothly and with relatively little violence or electoral fraud.[86] Jonathan's tenure saw an economic recovery that made Nigeria the leading economic power in Africa.[87][88] The Jonathan administration also saw an increase in unparalleled corruption, with as many as 20 billion US dollars said to have been lost to the Nigerian state through the national oil company. Above all, however, Jonathan's tenure saw the emergence of a wave of terror by the Boko Haram insurgency, such as the Gwoza massacre and Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping in 2014.[89]

Ahead of the general election of 2015, a merger of the biggest opposition parties in Nigeria – the Action Congress of Nigeria, the Congress for Progressive Change, the All Nigeria Peoples Party, a faction of the All Progressives Grand Alliance and the new PDP (a faction of serving governors of the ruling People's Democratic Party) – formed the All Progressives Congress led by current president Bola Ahmed Tinubu. At the time, it was the most expensive election ever to be held on the African continent (being surpassed only by the elections of 2019 and 2023). The new mega-opposition party chose as their candidate for the election former military dictator Muhammadu Buhari. Buhari's campaign in 2015 was popular and built around his image as a staunch anti-corruption fighter—he won the election by over two million votes. Observers generally praised the election as being fair.[90][91][92][93] The election marked the first time an incumbent president had lost re-election in Nigeria. In the 2019 presidential election, Buhari was re-elected.[94]

Four candidates vied for the presidency in the 2023 presidential election. For the first time since the return of democracy, no former military ruler ran for president, marking a strengthening of democracy and faith in the multiparty constitution. The election also saw the rise of metonymic supporters of the new candidates, the Obidient movement of Peter Obi, previously governor of Anambra State, widely appealed to young, urban voters and has his core base in the Southeast;[95] and the Kwankwassiya of Rabiu Kwankwaso, former governor of Kano State in the Northwest.[96]

Chief Bola Tinubu is currently serving as President of Nigeria since 29 May 2023.

Bola Tinubu, of the ruling party, won the disputed election with 36.61% of the vote,[97] but both runner-ups claimed victory and litigation is ongoing in an election tribunal.[98] Bola Tinubu's inauguration was held on 29 May 2023.[99] Problems with widespread kidnapping in Nigeria continued.[100]


Topography of Nigeria

Nigeria is located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and has a total area of 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi),[101] making it the world's 32nd-largest country. Its borders span 4,047 kilometres (2,515 mi), and it shares borders with Benin (773 km or 480 mi), Niger (1,497 km or 930 mi), Chad (87 km or 54 mi), and Cameroon (including the separatist Ambazonia) 1,690 km or 1,050 mi. Its coastline is at least 853 km (530 mi).[102] Nigeria lies between latitudes and 14°N, and longitudes and 15°E. The highest point in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m (7,936 ft). The main rivers are the Niger and the Benue, which converge and empty into the Niger Delta. This is one of the world's largest river deltas and the location of a large area of Central African mangroves.

Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the valleys of the Niger and Benue river valleys (which merge and form a Y-shape).[103] To the southwest of the Niger is a "rugged" highland. To the southeast of the Benue are hills and mountains, which form the Mambilla Plateau, the highest plateau in Nigeria. This plateau extends through the border with Cameroon, where the montane land is part of the Bamenda Highlands of Cameroon.

Climate map of Nigeria

The far south is defined by its tropical rainforest climate, where annual rainfall is 1,500 to 2,000 millimetres (60 to 80 in) per year.[104] In the southeast stands the Obudu Plateau. Coastal plains are found in both the southwest and the southeast.[103] Mangrove swamps are found along the coast.[105]

The area near the border with Cameroon close to the coast is rich rainforest and part of the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion, an important centre for biodiversity. It is a habitat for the drill primate, which is found in the wild only in this area and across the border in Cameroon. The areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State, also in this forest, are believed to contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies. The area of southern Nigeria between the Niger and the Cross Rivers has lost most of its forest because of development and harvesting by increased population, and has been replaced by grassland.

Everything in between the far south and the far north is savannah (insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees). Rainfall is more limited to between 500 and 1,500 millimetres (20 and 60 in) per year.[104] The savannah zone's three categories are Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, Sudan savannah, and Sahel savannah. Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is plains of tall grass interrupted by trees. Sudan savannah is similar but with shorter grasses and shorter trees. Sahel savannah consists of patches of grass and sand, found in the northeast.[105]

Shrinking of Lake Chad in north-eastern Nigeria, with the outline of the British Isles for size comparison


Nigeria is divided into two main catchment areas - that of Lake Chad and that of the Niger. The Niger catchment area covers about 63% of the country. The main tributary of the Niger is the Benue, whose tributaries extend beyond Cameroon into Cameroon into Chad and the Sharie catchment area. In the Sahel region, rain is less than 500 millimetres (20 in) per year, and the Sahara Desert is encroaching.[104] In the dry northeast corner of the country lies Lake Chad, on a shared water boundary delimitation with Niger, Chad and Cameroon.

The Chad Basin is fed from the north-eastern quarter of Nigeria. The Bauchi Plateau forms the watershed between the Niger/Benue and Komadugu Yobe river systems. The flat plains of north-eastern Nigeria are geographically part of the Chad Basin, where the course of the El Beid River forms the border with Cameroon, from the Mandara Mountains to Lake Chad. The Komadugu Yobe river system gives rise to the internationally important Hadejia-Nguru wetlands and Ox-bow lakes around Lake Nguru in the rainy season.[106][107] Other rivers of the northeast include the Ngadda and the Yedseram, both of which flow through the Sambisa swamps, thus forming a river system. The river system of the northeast is also a major river system.[108] In addition, Nigeria has numerous coastal rivers.

Photo of Lake Chad from Apollo 7, 1968

Over the last million years, Lake Chad in the far north-east of Nigeria has dried up several times for a few thousand years and just as often growing to many times its current size. In recent decades its surface area has been reduced considerably, which may also be due to humans taking water from the inlets to irrigate agricultural land.


Nigeria is covered by three types of vegetation: forests (where there is significant tree cover), savannahs (insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees), and montane land (least common and mainly found in the mountains near the Cameroon border). Both the forest zone and the savannah zone are divided into three parts.[109]

Some of the forest zone's most southerly portion, especially around the Niger River and Cross River deltas, is mangrove swamp. North of this is fresh water swamp, containing different vegetation from the salt water mangrove swamps, and north of that is rain forest.[109]

The savannah zone's three categories are divided into Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, made up of plains of tall grass which are interrupted by trees, the most common across the country; Sudan savannah, with short grasses and short trees; and Sahel savannah patches of grass and sand, found in the northeast.[109]

The Mambilla Plateau in the North-Eastern region of Nigeria

Environmental issues

Nigerian deforrestation 1981 - 2020
Deforestation in Nigeria 1981–2020[110]

Waste management including sewage treatment, the linked processes of deforestation and soil degradation, and climate change or global warming are the major environmental problems in Nigeria. Waste management presents problems in a megacity like Lagos and other major Nigerian cities which are linked with economic development, population growth and the inability of municipal councils to manage the resulting rise in industrial and domestic waste. This waste management problem is also attributable to unsustainable environmental management lifestyles of Kubwa community in the Federal Capital Territory, where there are habits of indiscriminate disposal of waste, dumping of waste along or into the canals, sewerage systems that are channels for water flows, and the like. Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanisation, poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major cities of the country. Some of the solutions have been disastrous to the environment, resulting in untreated waste being dumped in places where it can pollute waterways and groundwater.[111]

In 2005, Nigeria had the highest rate of deforestation in the world, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.[112] That year, 12.2%, the equivalent of 11,089,000 hectares, had been forested in the country. Between 1990 and 2000, Nigeria lost an average of 409,700 hectares of forest every year equal to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.4%. Between 1990 and 2005, in total Nigeria lost 35.7% of its forest cover or around 6,145,000 hectares.[113] Nigeria had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.2/10, ranking it 82nd globally out of 172 countries.[114]

In the year 2010, thousands of people were inadvertently exposed to lead-containing soil from informal gold mining within the northern state of Zamfara. While estimates vary, it is thought that upwards of 400 children died of acute lead poisoning, making this perhaps the largest lead poisoning fatality outbreak ever encountered.[115]

Nigeria's Delta region is one of the most polluted regions in the world due to serious oil spills and other environmental problems caused by its oil industry.[116][117] The heavy contamination of the air, ground and water with toxic pollutants is often used as an example of ecocide.[118][119][120][121][122] In additional to the environmental damage it has caused conflict in the Delta region.

Illegal oil refineries, in which local operators convert stolen crude oil into petrol and diesel, are considered particularly "dirty, dangerous and lucrative".[123] Safety and environmental aspects are usually ignored. Refining petroleum also inevitably produces heavy oil, which is "cracked" into lighter fuel components in regular plants at great technical expense. Illegal refineries do not have these technical possibilities and "dispose" of the heavy oil where it accumulates. The lighter components of crude oil (methane to butane, isobutane) create a certain risk of explosion, which often leads to disasters at illegal plants.[124] In 2022, Nigeria suffered 125 deaths from explosions at local, illegal refineries.[125]



Coat of arms of Nigeria in current use

Nigeria is a federal republic modelled after the United States,[126] with 36 states and capital Abuja as an independent unit. The executive power is exercised by the President. The president is both head of state and head of the federal government; the president is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year terms.[127] State governors, like the president, are elected for four years and may serve a maximum of two terms. The president's power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives, which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly. The Senate is a 109-seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. The House contains 360 seats, with the number of seats per state determined by population.[127]

The Nigerian president is elected in a modified two-round system. To be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive a relative majority of the votes and more than 25% of the votes in at least 24 of the 36 states.[128] If no candidate reaches this hurdle, a second round of voting takes place between the leading candidate and the next candidate who received the majority of votes in the highest number of states. By convention, presidential candidates take a running mate (candidate for the vice-presidency) who is both ethnically and religiously the opposite of themselves. There is no law prescribing this, yet all presidential candidates since the existence of the Fourth Republic until 2023 adhered to this rule.

However, this principle of religious and ethnic diversity in leadership was ignored in the 2023 General Elections, where the candidate for the All Progressives Congress, Bola Ahmed Tinubu, a Muslim, selected another Muslim, Senator Kashim Shettima, as running mate.

Administrative divisions

Map of Nigeria with administrative divisions

Nigeria is divided into thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory, which are further sub-divided into 774 local government areas. In some contexts, the states are aggregated into six geopolitical zones: North West, North East, North Central, South West, South East, and South South.[129][130]

Nigeria has five cities with a population of over a million (from largest to smallest): Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Benin City and Port Harcourt. Lagos is the largest city in Africa, with a population of over 12 million in its urban area.[131]

The south of the country in particular is characterised by very strong urbanisation and a relatively large number of cities. According to an estimate from 2015,[132] there are 20 cities in Nigeria with more than 500,000 inhabitants, including ten cities with a population of one million.


The Constitution of Nigeria is the supreme law of the country. There are four distinct legal systems in Nigeria, which include English law, common law, customary law, and Sharia law:

  • English law in Nigeria consists of the collection of British laws from colonial times.
  • Common law is the collection of authoritative judicial decisions in the field of civil law (so-called precedents) that have been handed down in the country concerned - in this case Nigeria. (This system is mainly found in Anglo-Saxon countries; in continental Europe, on the other hand, codified and, as far as possible, abstracted civil law predominates, as in the Napoleonic Code in France).[133]
  • Customary law is derived from indigenous traditional norms and practices, including the dispute resolution meetings of pre-colonial Yoruba land secret societies and the Èkpè and Okónkò of Igboland and Ibibioland.[134]
  • Sharia law (also known as Islamic Law) used to be used only in Northern Nigeria, where Islam is the predominant religion. It is also being used in Lagos State, Oyo State, Kwara State, Ogun State, and Osun State by Muslims. Muslim penal codes are not the same in every state and they differentiate in punishment and offences according to religious affiliation (for example, alcohol consumption and distribution).

The country has a judicial branch, the highest court of which is the Supreme Court of Nigeria.[135]

Foreign relations

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja

Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made African unity the centrepiece of its foreign policy.[136] One exception to the African focus was Nigeria's close relationship developed with Israel throughout the 1960s. Israel sponsored and oversaw the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings.[137]

Nigeria's foreign policy was put to the test in the 1970s after the country emerged united from its civil war. It supported movements against white minority governments in Southern Africa. Nigeria backed the African National Congress by taking a committed tough line about the South African government. Nigeria was a founding member of the Organisation for African Unity (now the African Union) and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole. Nigeria founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa, functioning as the standard-bearer for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and ECOMOG (especially during the Liberia and Sierra Leone civil wars).

With this Africa-centred stance, Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence (and has maintained membership since that time). Nigeria also supported several Pan-African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding opposition to the minority governments of Portuguese Mozambique, and Rhodesia. Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement. In late November 2006, it organized an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts.[138] Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal Court and the Commonwealth of Nations. It was temporarily expelled from the latter in 1995 when ruled by the Abacha regime.

Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s and maintains membership in OPEC, which it joined in July 1971. Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes volatile international relations with developed countries, notably the United States, and with developing countries.[139]

Since 2000, Chinese–Nigerian trade relations have risen exponentially. There has been an increase in total trade of over 10.3 billion dollars between the two nations from 2000 to 2016.[140] However, the structure of the Chinese–Nigerian trade relationship has become a major political issue for the Nigerian state. Chinese exports account for around 80 per cent of total bilateral trade volumes.[141] This has resulted in a serious trade imbalance, with Nigeria importing ten times more than it exports to China.[142] Subsequently, Nigeria's economy is becoming over-reliant on cheap imports to sustain itself, resulting in a clear decline in Nigerian industry under such arrangements.[143]

Continuing its Africa-centred foreign policy, Nigeria introduced the idea of a single currency for West Africa known as the Eco under the presumption that it would be led by the naira. But on 21 December 2019, Ivorian President Alassane Ouattara, Emmanuel Macron, and multiple other UEMOA states announced that they would merely rename the CFA franc instead of replacing the currency as originally intended. As of 2020, the Eco currency has been delayed to 2025.[144]


Nigerian Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun

The Nigerian Armed Forces are the combined military forces of Nigeria. It consists of three uniformed service branches: the Nigerian Army, Nigerian Navy, and Nigerian Air Force. The President of Nigeria functions as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, exercising his constitutional authority through the Ministry of Defence, which is responsible for the management of the military and its personnel. The operational head of the AFN is the Chief of the Defence Staff, who is subordinate to the Nigerian Defence Minister. With a force of more than 223,000 active personnel, the Nigerian military is one of the largest uniformed combat services in Africa.[145]

Nigerian Air Force Mi-24 attack helicopter

Nigeria has 143,000 troops in the armed forces (army 100,000, navy 25,000, air force 18,000) and another 80,000 personnel for "gendarmerie & paramilitary" in 2020, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies.[146] Nigeria spent just under 0.4 per cent of its economic output, or US$1.6 billion, on its armed forces in 2017.[147][148] For 2022, US$2.26 billion has been budgeted for the Nigerian armed forces, which is just over a third of Belgium's defence budget (US$5.99 billion).[146]

Communal conflicts

Attacks by Boko Haram, 2011 to October 2022. Each figure represents 1,000 deaths.[149]

Boko Haram and the bandit conflict have been responsible for numerous serious attacks with thousands of casualties since mid-2010. Since then, according to the Council on Foreign Relations' Nigeria Security Tracker, over 41,600 lives have been lost to this conflict (as of October 2022).[149] The United Nations refugee agency UNHCR counts about 1.8 million internally displaced persons and about 200,000 Nigerian refugees in neighbouring countries.

The Boko Haram-affected states agreed in February 2015 to establish an 8,700-strong Multinational Joint Task Force to jointly fight Boko Haram. By October 2015, Boko Haram had been driven out of all the cities it controlled and almost all the counties in northeastern Nigeria. In 2016, Boko Haram split and in 2022, 40,000 fighters surrendered.[150] The splinter group ISWAP (Islamic State in West Africa) remains active.

The fight against Boko Haram, other sectarians and criminals has been accompanied by increasing police attacks. The Council on Foreign Relations' Nigeria Security Tracker counted 1,086 deaths from Boko Haram attacks and 290 deaths from police violence in the first 12 months of its establishment in May 2011. In the 12 months after October 2021, 2,193 people died from police violence and 498 from Boko Haram and ISWAP,[149] according to the NST. The Nigerian police are notorious for vigilante justice.[149]

The Niger Delta saw intense attacks on oil infrastructure in 2016 by militant groups such as the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), the Niger Delta People's Volunteer Force (NDPVF), the Ijaw National Congress (INC) and the Pan Niger Delta Forum (PANDEF). In response, the new Buhari government pursued a dual strategy of repression and negotiation.

In late 2016, the Nigerian federal government resorted to the gambit of offering the militant groups a 4.5 billion naira (US$144 million) contract to guard oil infrastructure. Most accepted. The contract was renewed in August 2022, but led to fierce disputes among the above-mentioned groups over the distribution of the funds. Representatives speak of "war"[151] - against each other. The high propensity for violence and the pettiness of the leaders, as well as the complete absence of social and environmental arguments in this dispute[151] give rise to fears that the militant groups, despite their lofty names, have discarded responsibility for their region and ethnic groups and have moved into the realm of protection rackets and self-enrichment. In any case, the pipelines in the Niger Delta are not very effectively "guarded" - the pollution of the Niger Delta with stolen crude oil and illegally produced heavy fuel oil continued unhindered after 2016.[152]

In central Nigeria, conflicts between Muslim Hausa-Fulani herders and indigenous Christian farmers flared up again, especially in Kaduna, Plateau, Taraba and Benue states. In individual cases, these clashes have claimed several hundred lives. Conflict over land and resources is increasing due to the ongoing desertification in northern Nigeria, population growth and the generally tense economic situation.

In June 2022, a massacre took place in the St. Francis Xavier Church, in Owo. The Government blamed ISWAP for the murder of over 50 parishioners, but locals suspect Fulani herdsmen involvement.[153]


Nigeria's economy is the largest in Africa, the 31st-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and 30th-largest by PPP. GDP (PPP) per capita is US$9,148[154] (as of 2022), which is less than South Africa, Egypt or Morocco, but a little more than Ghana or Ivory Coast.

Nigeria is a leader in Africa as an energy power, financial market, in pharmaceuticals and in the entertainment industry. After petroleum, the largest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad.[155]

Nigeria has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks.[156]

Nigeria has a lower-middle-income economy[157] with an abundant supply of natural resources. Its wide array of underexploited mineral resources include coal, bauxite, tantalite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead and zinc.[158] Despite huge deposits of these natural resources, the mining industry in Nigeria is still in its infancy.

Before 1999, economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have supported economic potential.

After 2015, the Nigerian economy was able to diversify somewhat. Apart from oil and gas, Nigeria exports fertilisers and cement/cement board, moulded polypropylene (plastic) products, personal care products, paint, malt beverages and armoured vehicles.


Nigerian palm nuts put out to dry

In 2021, about 23.4% of Nigeria's GDP is contributed by agriculture, forestry and fishing combined.[159] Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava.[160] Further major crops include maize, rice, millet, yam beans, and guinea corn (sorghum).[161] Cocoa is the principal agricultural export, and one of the country's most significant non-petroleum products.[162][163] Nigeria is also one of the world's top twenty exporters of natural rubber, generating $20.9 million in 2019.[164]

Before the Nigerian Civil War and the oil boom, Nigeria was self-sufficient in food.[165][166][167] Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria.[168] Agriculture has failed to keep pace with Nigeria's rapid population growth, and Nigeria now relies upon food imports to sustain itself.[166][169] It spends US$6.7 billion yearly for food imports, four times more than revenues from food export.[160] The Nigerian government promoted the use of inorganic fertilizers in the 1970s.[170]

Nigeria's rice production increased by 10% from 2017/18 to 2021/22 to 5 million tonnes a year,[171] but could hardly keep up with the increased demand. Rice imports therefore remained constant at 2 million tonnes per year. In August 2019, Nigeria closed its border with Benin and other neighbouring countries to stop rice smuggling into the country as part of efforts to boost local production.[172]

Until now, Nigeria exported unhusked rice but had to import husked rice, the country's staple food. - The rice mill in Imota, near Lagos, is intended to handle the corresponding processing at home, improve the balance of trade and the labour market, and save unnecessary costs for transport and middlemen. When fully operational at the end of 2022, the plant, the largest south of the Sahara, is expected to employ 250,000 people and produce 2.5 million 50-kg bags of rice annually.[173]

Oil and natural gas

Nigeria is the 15th largest producer of petroleum in the world, the 6th largest exporter, and has the 9th largest proven reserves. Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy and politics, accounting for about 80% of government earnings. Nigeria also has the 9th largest proven natural gas reserves estimated by OPEC; the government's value of its about 206.53 trillion cubic feet has been valued at $803.4 trillion.[174] Natural gas is seen as having the potential to unlock an economic miracle on the Niger River.[175] Nigeria each year loses to gas flaring an estimate of US$2.5 billion,[176] and over 120,000 barrels of oil per day to crude theft in the Niger Delta, its main oil-producing region.[177][178] This has led to piracy and conflict for control in the region and has led to disruptions in production preventing the country from meeting its OPEC quota and exporting petroleum at full capability.[179]

Overflight photo of the creeks of the Niger Delta

Nigeria has a total of 159 oil fields and 1,481 wells in operation according to the Department of Petroleum Resources.[180] The most productive region of the nation is the coastal Niger Delta Basin in the Niger Delta or "south-south" region which encompasses 78 of the 159 oil fields. Most of Nigeria's oil fields are small and scattered, and as of 1990, these small fields accounted for 62.1% of all Nigerian production. This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced 37.9% of Nigeria's petroleum at that time.[181] Petrol was Nigeria's main import commodity until 2021, accounting for 24% of import volume.[182]

The Niger Delta Nembe Creek oil field was discovered in 1973 and produces from middle Miocene deltaic sandstone-shale in an anticline structural trap at a depth of 2 to 4 kilometres (7,000 to 13,000 feet).[183] In June 2013, Shell announced a strategic review of its operations in Nigeria, hinting that assets could be divested. While many international oil companies have operated there for decades, by 2014 most were making moves to divest their interests, citing a range of issues including oil theft. In August 2014, Shell said it was finalising its interests in four Nigerian oil fields.[184]

The supply of natural gas to Europe, threatened by the Ukraine war, is pushing projects to transport Nigerian natural gas via pipelines to Morocco or Algeria.[185][186][187] As of May 2022, however, there are no results on this yet.


Kainji Dam on the Niger River, built in the 1960s

Nigeria's energy consumption is much more than its generation capacity. Most of the energy comes from traditional fossil fuel, which account for 73% of total primary production. The rest is from hydropower (27%). Since independence, Nigeria has tried to develop a domestic nuclear industry for energy. Nigeria opened in 2004 a Chinese-origin research reactor at Ahmadu Bello University and has sought the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 2027 according to the National Program for the Deployment of Nuclear Power for Generation of Electricity. In 2007, President Umaru Yar'Adua urged the country to embrace nuclear power to meet its growing energy needs. In 2017, Nigeria signed the UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[188] In April 2015, Nigeria began talks with Russia's state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by 2035, the first of which will be in operation by 2025. In June 2015, Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants. Neither the Nigerian government nor Rosatom would disclose the specific locations of the sites, but it is believed that the nuclear plants will be sited in Akwa Ibom State and Kogi State. The sites are planned to house two plants each. In 2017 agreements were signed for the construction of the Itu nuclear power plant.


According to the survey, 94% of Nigerians are connected to the national grid, but only 57% have their electricity consumption recorded by an electricity meter.[189] Only 1% of Nigerians surveyed reported having electricity 24 hours a day. 68% have electricity 1 to 9 hours a day, according to the NIO. Two-thirds of Nigerians, or 66%, pay up to 10,000 Naira (US$13) a month for electricity, which is almost 3% of the average income in Nigeria.[189] Over two-thirds of respondents, or 67%, were willing to pay more for uninterrupted electricity supply. Power generators are owned by 21% of Nigerians, while 14% use solar energy.[189]

Manufacturing and technology

Nigeria EduSat-1, the first satellite built by Nigeria by the Federal University of Technology Akure

Nigeria has a manufacturing industry that includes leather and textiles (centred in Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha, and Lagos), plastics and processed food. Ogun is considered to be Nigeria's current industrial hub, as most factories are located in Ogun and more companies are moving there, followed by Lagos.[190][191][192] The city of Aba in the south-eastern part of the country is well known for handicrafts and shoes, known as "Aba made".[193] Nigeria has a market of 720,000 cars per year, but less than 20% of these are produced domestically.[194]

In 2016, Nigeria was the leading cement producer south of the Sahara, ahead of South Africa.[195] Aliko Dangote, Nigeria's richest inhabitant, based his wealth on cement production, as well as agricultural commodities.[196] According to its own information, the Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited produces 1.3 million tonnes of steel per year.[197] This would be equivalent to one-sixth of the United Kingdom's steel production in 2021.[198] However, steel plants in Katsina, Jos and Osogbo no longer appear to be active.[199]

In June 2019, Nigeria EduSat-1 was deployed from the International Space Station. It is the first satellite that was built in Nigeria, which followed many other Nigerian satellites that were built by other countries.[b][200] In 2021, Nigeria hosts about 60 percent of the pharmaceutical production capacity in Africa,[201] the larger pharmaceutical companies are located in Lagos.[202] The pharmaceutical producer with the most employees in Nigeria is Emzor Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.[203] Nigeria has a few electronic manufacturers like Zinox, the first branded Nigerian computer, and manufacturers of electronic gadgets such as tablet PCs.[204] As of January 2022, Nigeria is the host to 5 out of the 7 unicorn companies in Africa.[205]

Internet and telecommunications

Nigerian librarians editing the Wikidata database

Nigerian telecommunications market is one of the fastest-growing in the world, with major emerging market operators (like MTN, 9mobile, Airtel and Globacom) basing their largest and most profitable centres in the country.[206] Nigeria's ICT sector has experienced a lot of growth, representing 10% of the nation's GDP in 2018 as compared to just 1% in 2001.[207] Lagos is regarded as one of the largest technology hubs in Africa with its thriving tech ecosystem.[208] According to a survey by the GSM Association, 92% of adult Nigerian men and 88% of women owned a mobile phone.[209] Using various measures including but not limited to Illegal arrest, taking down of websites, passport seizures, and restricted access to bank accounts, the Nigerian government is punishing citizens for expressing themselves on the internet and working to stifle internet freedom.[210]


Owu waterfalls, visited by Nigerian undergraduates

Tourism in Nigeria centres largely on events, because of the country's ample amount of ethnic groups, but also includes rain forests, savannah, waterfalls, and other natural attractions.[211] Abuja is home to several parks and green areas. The largest, Millennium Park, was designed by architect Manfredi Nicoletti and officially opened in December 2003. After the re-modernization project achieved by the administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, Lagos is gradually becoming a major tourist destination. Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. The 2009 Eyo carnival (a yearly festival originating from Iperu Remo, Ogun State) was a step toward world city status. Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and fast-paced community.[212] Lagos has become an important location for African and black cultural identity.[213]

Lagos has sandy beaches by the Atlantic Ocean, including Elegushi Beach and Alpha Beach. Lagos also has many private beach resorts including Inagbe Grand Beach Resort and several others in the outskirts. Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three-star to five-star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites, Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton, and Four Points by Sheraton. Other places of interest include the Tafawa Balewa Square, Festac town, The Nike Art Gallery, Freedom Park, and the Cathedral Church of Christ.


Due to Nigeria's location in the centre of West Africa, transport plays a major role in the national service sector. The government investments has seen an increase in extensive road repairs and new construction have been carried out gradually as states in particular spend their share of increased government allocations. Representative of these improvements is the Second Niger Bridge near Onitsha, which was largely completed in 2022.[214] A 2017 World Bank report on logistics hubs in Africa placed the country in fourth place, behind Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Sao Tome,[215] but in 2021, Nigeria joined the World Logistics Passport, a private sector group working to increase the effiency of global trade.[216]


Third Mainland bridge across the Lagos lagoon

Four trans-African automobile routes pass through Nigeria:

Nigeria has the largest road network in West Africa. It covers about 200,000 km, of which 60,000 km are asphalted. Nigeria's roads and highways handle 90% of all passenger and freight traffic. It contributes N2.4trn ($6.4bn) to GDP in 2020. The federal government is responsible for 35,000 km of the road network. The motorway links of important economic centres such as Lagos-Ibadan, Lagos-Badagry and Enugu-Onitsha have been renovated.[217]

The rest of the road network is a state matter and therefore in very different shape, depending on which state you are in. Economically strong states such as Lagos, Anambra and Rivers receive particularly poor evaluations.[218] Most roads were built in the 1980s and early 1990s. Poor maintenance and inferior materials have worsened the condition of the roads. Travelling is very difficult. Especially during the rainy season, the use of secondary roads is sometimes almost impossible due to potholes.[219] Road bandits often take advantage of this situation for their criminal purposes.[220][221]

Abuja Light Rail in Idu Station

Rail transport

Railways have undergone a massive revamping with projects such as the Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway being completed connecting northern cities of Kano, Kaduna, Abuja, Ibadan and Lagos.

Air transport

An A340-500 of Arik Air

The Nigerian aviation industry generated 198.62 billion naira (€400 million) in 2019, representing a contribution of 0.14% to GDP. It was the fastest growing sector of the Nigerian economy in 2019. Passenger traffic increased from 9,358,166 in 2020 to 15,886,955 in 2021, a significant increase of over 69%. Aircraft movements increased by more than 46% from 2020 to 2021. Total freight volumes were 191 tonnes in 2020 but increased to 391 tonnes in 2021.[222] In December 2021, the Anambra International Cargo Airport started its operation.[223] In April 2022, the second terminal of the Murtala Muhammed International Airport has been inaugurated. It will increase the capacity of the airport to 14 million passengers per year.[224]

B737-300 of Air Peace

There are 54 airports in Nigeria, The principal airports are:

Nigeria had in the past operated state-owned airline Nigeria Airways which was over-indebted in 2003 and was bought by the British Virgin Group; since 28 June 2005, it has flown under the name Virgin Nigeria Airways. At the end of 2008, the Virgin Group announced its withdrawal from the airline; since September 2009 the airline has been operating as Nigerian Eagle Airlines. The largest airline in Nigeria is privately owned Air Peace, founded in 2012.


Population density (persons per square kilometer) in Nigeria

The United Nations estimates that the population of Nigeria in 2021 was at 213,401,323[225][226], distributed as 51.7% rural and 48.3% urban, and with a population density of 167.5 people per square kilometer. Around 42.5% of the population were 14 years or younger, 19.6% were aged 15–24, 30.7% were aged 25–54, 4.0% were aged 55–64, and 3.1% were aged 65 years or older. The median age in 2017 was 18.4 years.[227] Nigeria is the world's sixth-most populous country. The birth rate is 35.2-births/1,000 population and the death rate is 9.6 deaths/1,000 population as of 2017, while the total fertility rate is 5.07 children born/woman.[227] Nigeria's population increased by 57 million from 1990 to 2008, a 60% growth rate in less than two decades.[228] Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa[229] and accounts for about 17% of the continent's total population as of 2017; however, exactly how populous is a subject of speculation.[230]

Millions of Nigerians have emigrated during times of economic hardship, primarily to Europe, North America and Australia. It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have emigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace. Individuals in many such Diasporic communities have joined the "Egbe Omo Yoruba" society, a national association of Yoruba descendants in North America.[231][232] Nigeria's largest city is Lagos. Lagos has grown from about 300,000 in 1950[233] to an estimated 13.4 million in 2017.[234]

Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, together accounting for more than 60% of the population, while the Edo, Ijaw, Fulɓe, Kanuri, Urhobo-Isoko, Ibibio, Ebira, Nupe, Gbagyi, Jukun, Igala, Idoma, Ogoni and Tiv account for between 35 and 40%; other minorities make up the remaining 5%.[235] The Middle Belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Atyap, Berom, Goemai, Igala, Kofyar, Pyem, and Tiv.[131][236][237] There are small minorities of British, American, Indian, Chinese (est. 50,000),[238] white Zimbabwean,[239] Japanese, Greek, Syrian and Lebanese immigrants. Immigrants also include those from other West African or East African nations.


Map of Nigeria's linguistic groups

Religion in Nigeria (2018 estimate in The World Factbook of CIA)[240]

  Islam (53.5%)
  Protestant (35.3%)
  Roman Catholic (10.6%)
  other (0.6%)

Five hundred and twenty-five languages have been spoken in Nigeria; out of these 525 languages, eight are now extinct.[241] In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country, owing to the influence of British colonisation which ended in 1960. Many French speakers from surrounding countries have influenced the English spoken in the border regions of Nigeria and some Nigerian citizens have become fluent enough in French to work in the surrounding countries. The French spoken in Nigeria may be mixed with some native languages and English.[242]

The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of languages of Africa: the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Igbo, Yoruba, Ibibio, Ijaw, Fulfulde, Ogoni, and Edo. Kanuri, spoken in the northeast, primarily in Borno and Yobe State, is part of the Nilo-Saharan family, and Hausa is an Afroasiatic language. Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their languages, English as the official language is widely used for education, business transactions and official purposes. English as a first language is used by only a small minority of the country's urban elite, and it is not spoken at all in some rural areas. Hausa is the most widely spoken of the three main languages spoken in Nigeria.

With the majority of Nigeria's populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain indigenous languages. Some of the largest of these, notably Yoruba and Igbo, have derived standardised languages from several different dialects and are widely spoken by those ethnic groups. Nigerian Pidgin English, often known simply as "Pidgin" or "Broken" (Broken English), is also a popular lingua franca, though with varying regional influences on dialect and slang. The pidgin English or Nigerian English is widely spoken within the Niger Delta Region.[243]


Nigeria is a religiously diverse society, with Islam (predominantly in the north) and Christianity (predominantly in the south) being the most widely professed religions. Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Muslims and Christians, with a tiny minority of adherents of traditional African religions and other religions.[244] The Christian share of Nigeria's population is in decline because of the lower fertility rate compared to Muslims in the country.[245] As in other parts of Africa where Islam and Christianity are dominant, religious syncretism with the traditional African religions is common.[246]

A 2012 report on religion and public life by the Pew Research Center stated that in 2010, 49.3% of Nigeria's population was Christian, 48.8% was Muslim, and 1.9% were followers of indigenous and other religions (such as the Bori in the North) or unaffiliated.[247] However, in a report released by Pew Research Center in 2015, the Muslim population was estimated to be 50%, and by 2060, according to the report, Muslims will account for about 60% of the country.[248] The 2010 census of Association of Religion Data Archives has also reported that 48.8% of the total population was Christian, slightly larger than the Muslim population of 43.4%, while 7.5% were members of other religions.[249] However, these estimates should be taken with caution because sample data is mostly collected from major urban areas in the south, which are predominantly Christian.[250][251][252] According to a 2018 estimate in The World Factbook by the CIA, the population is estimated to be 53.5% Muslim, 45.9% Christian (10.6% Roman Catholic and 35.3% Protestant and other Christian), and 0.6% as other.[253]

Islam dominates northwestern Nigeria and northeastern Nigeria (Kanuri, Fulani and other groups). In the west, the Yoruba people are predominantly Muslim with a significant Christian minority in addition to a few adherents of traditional religions.[254] Protestant and locally cultivated Christianity are widely practised in Western areas, while Roman Catholicism is a more prominent Christian feature of southeastern Nigeria. Both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism are observed in the Ibibio, Efik, Ijo and Ogoni lands of the south. The Igbos (predominant in the east) and the Ibibio (south) are 98% Christian, with 2% practising traditional religions.[255] The middle belt of Nigeria contains the largest number of minority ethnic groups in Nigeria, who were found to be majority Christians and members of traditional religions, with a significant Muslim minority.[256]


Paediatric ward, General hospital, Ilorin

Health care delivery in Nigeria is a concurrent responsibility of the three tiers of government in the country, and the private sector.[257] Nigeria has been reorganising its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987, which formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees.[258] The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based health care reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.[259]

Almost half of Nigerians, or 48%, report that they or a household member have fallen ill in the last three months. Malaria had been diagnosed in 88% of the cases and typhoid fever in 32%.[260] High blood pressure was in third place with 8%. For symptoms of malaria, 41% of Nigerians turn to a hospital, 22% to a chemist's shop, 21% to a pharmacy and 11% seek cure through herbs.[260]

The HIV/AIDS rate in Nigeria is much lower than in other African nations such as Botswana or South Africa whose prevalence (percentage) rates are in the double digits. As of 2019[update], the HIV prevalence rate among adults of ages 15–49 was 1.5 per cent.[261] Life expectancy in Nigeria is 54.7 years on average,[261] and 71% and 39% of the population have access to improved water sources and improved sanitation, respectively.[262] As of 2019[update], the infant mortality is 74.2 deaths per 1,000 live births.[263]

In 2012, a new bone marrow donor program was launched by the University of Nigeria to help people with leukaemia, lymphoma, or sickle cell disease to find a compatible donor for a life-saving bone marrow transplant, which cures them of their conditions. Nigeria became the second African country to have successfully carried out this surgery.[264] In the 2014 Ebola outbreak, Nigeria was the first country to effectively contain and eliminate the Ebola threat that was ravaging three other countries in the West African region; the unique method of contact tracing employed by Nigeria became an effective method later used by countries such as the United States when Ebola threats were discovered.[265][266][267]

The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as "brain drain", because of emigration by skilled Nigerian doctors to North America and Europe. In 1995, an estimated 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practising in the United States alone, which is about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. Retaining these expensively trained professionals has been identified as one of the goals of the government.[268]


Abisogun Leigh Science Building, for the Lagos State University's Faculty of Science

Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. The education system is divided into kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. After the 1970s oil boom, tertiary education was improved so it would reach every subregion of Nigeria. 68% of the Nigerian population is literate, and the rate for men (75.7%) is higher than that for women (60.6%).[269]

Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served. Nearly 10.5 million Nigerian children aged 5–14 years are not in school. Only 61% of 6–11 year-olds regularly attend primary school.[270] The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four, five or six years of university education leading to a bachelor's degree.[269] The government has majority control of university education. Tertiary education in Nigeria consists of universities (public and private), polytechnics, monotechnics, and colleges of education. The country has a total of 138 universities, with 40 federally owned, 39 state-owned, and 59 privately owned. Nigeria was ranked 109th in the Global Innovation Index in 2023, up from 118th in 2021.[271][272]


A Nigerian police officer at the Eyo festival in Lagos

The security situation in Nigeria is considered inadequate despite political stability. 68% of Nigerians feel "not safe" in their country. 77% do not know of an alarm number ("helpline") for emergencies.[273] Nigerians, according to the above survey, fear being robbed (24%) or kidnapped (also 24%), being victims of armed bandits or of petty theft (both 8%), or being harmed in the herdsmen-farmers conflict (also 8%).[273] This is followed by "ritual killings" (4%) and "Boko Haram" (3.5%). Respondents see "more security personnel and better training" (37%), "reduction of unemployment" (13%) and "prayers / divine intervention" (8%) as promising countermeasures.[273]

Homicides by Nigerian state per year and per 1 million inhabitants, comparing the UK and Turkey (Source: Nigeria Security Tracker 1/2020-6/2023)

The number of homicides in Nigeria varies greatly depending on the state. Metropoles such as Lagos, Kano and Ibadan seem much safer than rural areas. Kano has better statistics than the UK, with 1.5 homicides per year and 1 million inhabitants - which can be explained by the fact that the region's religious and morality police not only monitor the morality of the inhabitants and crack down on drug users, but also have a curbing effect on murder and manslaughter.[274] This contrasts with other cities that are also Islamic, such as Maiduguri and Kaduna, which have worrying statistics on homicides.

There is some piracy in the Gulf of Guinea, with attacks directed at all types of vessels. However, security measures on board of mentioned vessels have recently meant that pirates are now more likely to attack fishing villages.[275]

Internationally, Nigeria is infamous for a type of advance-fee scam along with a form of confidence trick. The victim is talked into exchanging bank account information on the premise that the money will be transferred to them. In reality, money is taken out instead. In 2003, the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission was created to combat this and other forms of organised financial crime.[276] The EFCC is quite active.[277][278][279]


According to the International Monetary Fund, 32% of Nigeria's population lives in extreme poverty (as of 2017), living on less than US$2.15 a day.[280] The World Bank stated in March 2022 that the number of poor Nigerians had increased by 5 million to 95.1 million during the Covid period.[281] Accordingly, 40% of Nigerians live below the poverty line of US$1.90 as handled by the World Bank.[282]

The threshold amounts used internationally by the IMF and the World Bank do not take into account the local purchasing power of a US dollar.[citation needed] The methodology is therefore not without controversy.[283][284] Despite the undoubted existence of slums in Nigeria, for example, the fact that 92% of men and 88% of women in Nigeria own a mobile phone[285] is difficult to reconcile with the poverty percentages published by the IMF and the World Bank.

Human rights

End SARS is a decentralised social movement and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.

Nigeria's human rights record remains poor.[286] According to the U.S. Department of State,[286] the most significant human rights problems are the use of excessive force by security forces, impunity for abuses by security forces, arbitrary arrests, prolonged pretrial detention, judicial corruption and executive influence on the judiciary, rape, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of prisoners, detainees and suspects; harsh and life‑threatening prison and detention centre conditions; human trafficking for prostitution and forced labour, societal violence and vigilante killings, child labour, child abuse and child sexual exploitation, domestic violence, discrimination based on ethnicity, region and religion.

Nigeria is a state party of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women[287] It also has signed the Maputo Protocol, an international treaty on women's rights, and the African Union Women's Rights Framework.[288] Discrimination based on sex is a significant human rights issue. Forced marriages are common.[289] Child marriage remains common in Northern Nigeria;[290] 39% of girls are married before age 15, although the Marriage Rights Act banning marriage of girls under 18 was introduced on a federal level in 2008.[291] There is rampant polygamy in Northern Nigeria.[292] Domestic violence is common. Women have fewer land rights.[293] Maternal mortality was at 814 per 100,000 live births in 2015.[294] Female genital mutilation is common, although a ban was implemented in 2015.[295] At least half a million suffer from vaginal fistula, largely as a result of lack of medical care.[296][297]

Women face a large amount of inequality politically in Nigeria, being subjugated to a bias that is sexist and reinforced by socio-cultural, economic and oppressive ways.[298] Women throughout the country were only politically emancipated in 1979.[299] Yet husbands continue to dictate the votes for many women, which upholds the patriarchal system.[300] Most workers in the informal sector are women.[301] Women's representation in government since independence from Britain is very poor. Women have been reduced to sideline roles in appointive posts throughout all levels of government and still make up a tiny minority of elected officials.[300] But nowadays with more education available to the public, Nigerian women are taking steps to have more active roles in the public, and with the help of different initiatives, more businesses are being started by women.

Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality,[302] infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms.[303] Nigeria is considered to be one of the most homophobic countries in the world.[304][305][306] In the 23 years up to September 2022, university workers in Nigeria went on strike 17 times, for a total of 57 months.[307] As a result, the 2022 summer semester was cancelled nationwide.[308]



Chinua Achebe, winner Booker Prize 2007 and Peace Award of the German book trade 2002

Most Nigerian literature is written in English, partly because this language is understood by most Nigerians. Literature in the Yoruba, Hausa and Igbo languages (the three most populous language groups in Nigeria) does exist, however, and in the case of the Hausa, for example, can look back on a centuries-old tradition. With Wole Soyinka, Nigeria can present a Nobel Prize winner for literature. Ben Okri won the prestigious Booker Prize in 1991; Chinua Achebe did the same in 2007. Achebe also won the Peace Award of the German Book Trade in 2002. Lola Shoneyin has won several awards for her book The Secret Lives of Baba Segi's Wives.


The earliest known form of popular music in Nigeria was the palm-wine music which dominated the music landscape in the 1920s. Tunde King was a prominent name in the genre.[309][310]

The 1930s saw the emergence of Onitsha Native Orchestra. They explored various social themes and trends in their native singing style.[309][310]

In the 1950s and 1960s, Highlife music became a popular staple in the country with regional genres such as the Igbo Highlife. A notable exponent of the genre were the genre's first Nigerian boy band Oriental Brothers International, Bobby Benson, Osita Osadebe, Victor Olaiya, Rex Lawson, Dr Sir Warrior and Oliver De Coque.[309][310]

The 1970s was the era of Fela Kuti, the pioneer of Afrobeat genre - fused from Highlife, Jazz and Yoruba Music. Fela later evolved into social activism and black consciousness.[309][310]

In the 1980s, King Sunny Ade achieved success with Juju Music. Prominent singer of the era is William Onyeabor who is known for his fusion of Funk Music and Disco.[309][311]

By the 1990s, reggae music transitioned into the music scene. Prominent reggae artiste of the era was Majek Fashek. By the mid-1990s, Hip hop Music began to gain popularity, led by acts such as Remedies, Trybes Men, JJC, etc. Throughout the years, highlife music retained its popularity in the country.

At the turn of the century, famous 2000s acts like P-Square, 2face, and Dbanj were credited to have made tremendous impact in the evolution of Afrobeats and its popularization on the international stage.[312][313][314]

In November 2008, Nigeria's music scene (and that of Africa) received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja.[315] Over a decade later, the Afrobeat genre has widely taken over, with artist like Davido, Wizkid and Burna Boy.


Top five highest grossing Nigerian films:

The Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood (a blend of "Nigeria" and "Hollywood")[321] and is now the second-largest producer of movies in the world, having surpassed Hollywood. Only India's Bollywood is larger. Nigerian film studios are based in Lagos, Kano, and Enugu, and form a major portion of the local economy of these cities. Nigerian cinema is Africa's largest movie industry in terms of both value and the number of movies produced per year. Although Nigerian films have been produced since the 1960s, the country's film industry has been aided by the rise of affordable digital filming and editing technologies. The 2009 thriller film The Figurine heightened the media attention towards the New Nigerian Cinema revolution. The film was a critical and commercial success in Nigeria, and it was also screened in international film festivals.[322] The 2010 film Ijé by Chineze Anyaene, overtook The Figurine to become the highest-grossing Nigerian film; a record it held for four years until it was overtaken in 2014 by Half of a Yellow Sun (2013).[323][324] By 2016, this record was held by The Wedding Party by Kemi Adetiba.

By the end of 2013, the film industry reportedly hit a record-breaking revenue of ₦1.72 trillion (US$4.1 billion). As of 2014, the industry was worth ₦853.9 billion (US$5.1 billion), making it the third most valuable film industry in the world behind the United States and India. It contributed about 1.4% to Nigeria's economy; this was attributed to the increase in the number of quality films produced and more formal distribution methods.[325][326]

T.B. Joshua's Emmanuel TV, originating from Nigeria, is one of the most viewed television stations across Africa.[327]


Ofala Festival of Onitsha People

There are many festivals in Nigeria, some of which date to the period before the arrival of the major religions in this ethnically and culturally diverse society. The main Muslim and Christian festivals are often celebrated in ways that are unique to Nigeria or unique to the people of a locality.[328] The Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation has been working with the states to upgrade the traditional festivals, which may become important sources of tourism revenue.[329]


Suya With Pepper Sauce

Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs, and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chilli peppers. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied. Suya is usually sold in urban areas especially during night-time.[330]


The fashion industry in Nigeria contributes significantly to the country's economics. Casual attire is commonly worn but formal and traditional styles are also worn depending on the occasion. Nigeria is known not only for its fashionable textiles and garments, but also for its fashion designers who have increasingly gained international recognition. Euromonitor estimates the Sub-Saharan fashion market to be worth $31 billion, with Nigeria accounting for 15% of these $31 billion.[331] Nigeria is not only known for their many fashion textiles and garment pieces that are secret to their culture. They also outputted many fashion designers who have developed many techniques and businesses along the way.


Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup

Football is largely considered Nigeria's national sport, and the country has its own Premier League of football. Nigeria's national football team, known as the "Super Eagles", has played in the FIFA World Cup on six occasions (1994, 1998, 2002, 2010, 2014, and 2018). In April 1994, the Super Eagles ranked fifth in the FIFA World Rankings, the highest-ranking achieved by an African team. They won the Africa Cup of Nations in 1980, 1994, and 2013, and have also hosted both the U17 and U20 FIFA World Cup. They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics (in which they beat Argentina) becoming the first African football team to win gold in Olympic football.

Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket and track and field.[332] Nigeria's national basketball team made the headlines internationally when it became the first African team to beat the United States men's national team.[333] In earlier years, Nigeria qualified for the 2012 Summer Olympics as it beat heavily favoured world elite teams such as Greece and Lithuania.[334] Nigeria has been home to numerous internationally recognised basketball players in the world's top leagues in America, Europe and Asia. These players include Basketball Hall of Famer Hakeem Olajuwon, and later players in the NBA. The Nigerian Premier League has become one of the biggest and most-watched basketball competitions in Africa. The games have aired on Kwese TV and have averaged a viewership of over a million people.[335]

Nigeria made history by qualifying the first bobsled team for the Winter Olympics from Africa when their women's two-person team qualified for the bobsled competition at the XXIII Olympic Winter Games.[336] In the early 1990s, Scrabble was made an official sport in Nigeria; by the end of 2017, there were around 4,000 players in more than 100 clubs in the country.[337] In 2018, the Nigerian Curling Federation was established to introduce a new sport to the country with the hope of getting the game to be a part of the curriculum at the elementary, high school, and university levels respectively. At the 2019 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship in Norway, Nigeria won their first international match beating France 8–5.[338]

Nigeria's women's and men's national teams in beach volleyball competed at the 2018–2020 CAVB Beach Volleyball Continental Cup.[339] The country's U21 national teams qualified for the 2019 FIVB Beach Volleyball U21 World Championships.[340]

Nigeria is the birthplace of the sport loofball.[341]

See also

  • flagNigeria portal


  1. ^ /nˈɪəriə/ ny-JEER-ee-ə; Hausa: Najeriya Hausa pronunciation: [nàː.(d)ʒéː.rí.jàː] listen, Igbo: Naìjíríyà, Yoruba: Nàìjíríà, Nigerian Pidgin: Naijá [ˈnaɪ.dʒə], Fula: Naajeeriya, Tyap: Naijeriya
  2. ^ NigeriaSat-1, NigeriaSat-2, NigeriaSat-X, NigComSat-1, and NigComSat-1R


  1. ^ Blench, Roger (2014). An Atlas Of Nigerian Languages. Oxford: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  2. ^ "Languages of Nigeria". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  3. ^ "Africa: Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  4. ^ "Nigeria". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 March 2023. (Archived 2022 edition.)
  5. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Nigeria)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  6. ^ "Poverty and Inequality Index". National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2023/24". United Nations Development Programme. 13 March 2024. Archived from the original on 19 March 2024. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  8. ^ Akinbode, Ayomide (2 April 2019). "Why Nigeria changed from Right-Hand Drive to Left-Hand Drive in 1972". Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021. The terms 'right- and left-hand drive' refer to the position of the driver in the vehicle and are the reverse of the terms 'right- and left-hand traffic'.
  9. ^ "About Nigeria". Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  10. ^ "Nigeria - Colonialism, Independence, Civil War". Britannica. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  11. ^ Achebe, Nwando. The female king of colonial Nigeria : Ahebi Ugbabe. Bloomington. ISBN 978-0-253-00507-6. OCLC 707092916. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  12. ^ "Ethnicity in Nigeria". PBS. 5 April 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  13. ^ "Nigeria". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  14. ^ Pereltsvaig, Asya (16 June 2011). "Linguistic diversity in Africa and Europe – Languages Of The World". Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  15. ^ "Nigeria – CIA World Factbook 2019" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  16. ^ Mann, Charles C. (1990). "Choosing an Indigenous Official Language for Nigeria" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  17. ^ "Nigerian Constitution". Nigeria Law. Archived from the original on 25 May 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  18. ^ "The countries with the 10 largest Christian populations and the 10 largest Muslim populations". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  19. ^ "Nigeria Fact Sheet" (PDF). United States Embassy in Nigeria. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  20. ^ "Nigeria: The African giant". The Round Table. 50 (197): 55–63. 1959. doi:10.1080/00358535908452221. ISSN 0035-8533.
  21. ^ "Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) - The Nuclear Threat Initiative". Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  22. ^ The Arabic name nahr al-anhur is a direct translation of the Tuareg.
  23. ^ "Online Etymological Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  24. ^ Kperogi, Farooq A. "Natasha H. Akpoti's Wildly Inaccurate History of Nigeria". Notes From Atlanta. Archived from the original on 11 August 2023. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  25. ^ a b Tylecote 1975 (see below)
  26. ^ a b Eggert, Manfred (2014). "Early iron in West and Central Africa". In Breunig, P (ed.). Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context. Frankfurt, Germany: Africa Magna Verlag Press. pp. 51–59.
  27. ^ a b Eggert, Manfred (2014). "Early iron in West and Central Africa". In Breunig, P (ed.). Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context. Frankfurt, Germany: Africa Magna Verlag Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 9783937248462.
  28. ^ Holl, Augustin F. C. (June 2020). "The Origins of African Metallurgies". Oxford Research Encyclopedias. 22 (4): 12–13. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190854584.013.63. ISBN 9780190854584. OCLC 7869925414.
  29. ^ Breunig, Peter. 2014. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p. 21.
  30. ^ Nicole Rupp, Peter Breunig & Stefanie Kahlheber, "Exploring the Nok Enigma Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine", Antiquity 82.316, June 2008.
  31. ^ B.E.B. Fagg, "The Nok Culture in Prehistory", Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 1.4, December 1959.
  32. ^ Kleiner, Fred S.; Mamiya, Christin J. (2009). Gardner's Art Through the Ages: Non-Western Perspectives (13, revised ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-495-57367-8.
  33. ^ "Nok Terracottas (500 B.C.–200 A.D.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  34. ^ Eze–Uzomaka, Pamela. "Iron and its influence on the prehistoric site of Lejja". University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Archived from the original on 6 December 2020. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  35. ^ a b Juang, Richard M. (2008). Africa and the Americas: culture, politics, and history: a multidisciplinary encyclopedia, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 597. ISBN 978-1-85109-441-7.
  36. ^ Hrbek, Ivan (1992). Africa from the seventh to the eleventh Century. James Currey Publishers. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-85255-093-9.
  37. ^ Uzukwu, E. Elochukwu (1997). Worship as Body Language. Liturgical Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8146-6151-2. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 27 June 2024.
  38. ^ a b Falola, Toyin; Heaton, Matthew M. (2008). A History of Nigeria. Cambridge University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-521-68157-5.
  39. ^ Laitin, David D. (1986). Hegemony and culture: politics and religious change among the Yoruba. University of Chicago Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-226-46790-0.
  40. ^ MacDonald, Fiona; Paren, Elizabeth; Shillington, Kevin; Stacey, Gillian; Steele, Philip (2000). Peoples of Africa, Volume 1. Marshall Cavendish. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-7614-7158-5.
  41. ^ a b c Gordon, April A. (2003). Nigeria's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. pp. 44–54. ISBN 978-1-57607-682-8. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  42. ^ a b c Falola, Toyin; Genova, Ann (2009). Historical Dictionary of Nigeria. Scarecrow Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-8108-6316-3. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  43. ^ Falola, Toyin; Paddock, Adam (2012). Environment and Economics in Nigeria. Routledge. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-136-66247-8. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  44. ^ Metz, Helen Chapin (1991). "Nigeria: A Country Study – The Slave Trade". Library of Congress Country Studies. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  45. ^ Shillington, Kevin, Encyclopedia of African History. (U of Michigan Press, 2005) p. 1401.
  46. ^ Adam, Abba Idris, "Re-inventing Islamic Civilization in the Sudanic Belt: The Role of Sheikh Usman Dan Fodio." Journal of Modern Education Review 4.6 (2014): 457–465. online Archived 15 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ Peterson, Derek R., ed., Abolitionism and imperialism in Britain, Africa, and the Atlantic (Ohio University Press, 2010).
  48. ^ Falola, Toyin, and Matthew M. Heaton, A History of Nigeria (2008), pp. 85–109.
  49. ^ "Slow death slavery course abolition northern Nigeria 18971936 | Regional history after 1500". Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  50. ^ "The end of slavery". The Story of Africa. BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 July 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  51. ^ Udofia, O.E. (1981). "Nigerian Political Parties: Their Role in Modernizing the Political System, 1920–1966". Journal of Black Studies. 11 (4): 435–447. doi:10.1177/002193478101100404. JSTOR 2784073. S2CID 143073983.
  52. ^ "The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria" (PDF). 1963. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2021.
  53. ^ Irede, Akin (17 March 2022). "Aguiyi-Ironsi: The murder that birthed Nigeria's northern hegemony". The Africa Report. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  54. ^ Falola and Heaton, A History of Nigeria (2008) pp 158–59.
  55. ^ Murray, Senan (30 May 2007). "Reopening Nigeria's civil war wounds". BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  56. ^ Daly, Samuel Fury Childs (7 August 2020). A History of the Republic of Biafra. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108887748. ISBN 978-1-108-88774-8. S2CID 225266768.
  57. ^ "Background Paper on Nigeria and Biafra, Declassified Documents Reference System.
  58. ^ Metz, Helen Chapin (1991). "Nigeria: A Country Study – Civil War". Library of Congress Country Studies. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  59. ^ "The Biafra War and the Age of Pestilence". Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  60. ^ Michael I. Draper, Shadows: Airlift and Airwar in Biafra and Nigeria 1967–1970.
  61. ^ McDonald, Gordon C., Area Handbook for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo Kinshasa) (1971), p. 263
  62. ^ Stearns, Jason K. Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa (2011), p. 115
  63. ^ Wrong, Michela. In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo (2000), p. 266
  64. ^ Watts, Michael (1987) State, Oil and Agriculture in Nigeria, Institute of International Studies, University of California, ISBN 0-87725-166-5.
  65. ^ Iliffe 2011, pp. 42–43; Derfler 2011, p. 81.
  66. ^ Derfler 2011, p. 82.
  67. ^ Iliffe 2011, p. 43; Derfler 2011, p. 81.
  68. ^ Iliffe 2011, p. 44.
  69. ^ Joliba (13 February 2015). "Failed Coup Attempt of 1976". Joliba. Archived from the original on 27 June 2023. Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  70. ^ Iliffe 2011, p. 48.
  71. ^ Iliffe 2011, pp. 48–49; Derfler 2011, p. 85.
  72. ^ Iliffe 2011, p. 50; Derfler 2011, p. 85.
  73. ^ African Concord (1990). The New Helmsmen. Concord Press, Ikeja, Lagos. 13 August 1990
  74. ^ David Williams, President and power in Nigeria: The life of Shehu Shagari (Routledge, 2018).
  75. ^ "Nigeria, Military Faces Daunting Challenges", AP Press International, 3 March 1984. Retrieved 22 February 2007.
  76. ^ Siollun, Max (25 October 2018), Levan, Carl; Ukata, Patrick (eds.), "Civil Military Affairs and Military Culture in Post-Transition Nigeria", The Oxford Handbook of Nigerian Politics, Oxford University Press, pp. 272–287, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198804307.013.13, ISBN 978-0-19-880430-7
  77. ^ Bilski, Andrew, "Broken Promises", Maclean, 6 September 1993.
  78. ^ Diamond, Larry; Kirk-Greene, Anthony; Oyeleye Oyediran (1997) Transition without End: Nigerian Politics and Civil Society Under Babangida, Vantage Publishers, ISBN 978-2458-54-6.
  79. ^ "Wiwa et al v. Royal Dutch Petroleum et al". Center for Constitutional Rights. Archived from the original on 26 March 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  80. ^ "Nigerian Lawyer: Abacha accounts apparently in Switzerland, Luxembourg, France, and Germany", AP press, 10 January 2000.
  81. ^ "Abdusalam Abubakar" Archived 4 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, accessed 26 October 2012.
  82. ^ Falola and Heaton, A History of Nigeria (2008) pp. 211–34.
  83. ^ "Final Report" (PDF). EU Election Observation Mission Nigeria 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  84. ^ "NASS confirms Sambo as vice president". The Nigerian Voice. 18 May 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  85. ^ Akinlade, Muruf (18 May 2010). "National Assembly confirms Sambo as Vice President". MyOndoState.Com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  86. ^ Nossiter, Adam (16 April 2011). "Nigerians Vote in Presidential Election". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  87. ^ Times, Premium (23 December 2014). "Nigerian economy among world's largest - Jonathan". Premium Times Nigeria. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  88. ^ eribake, akintayo (24 December 2014). "Nigeria's economy among largest in the world — Jonathan". Vanguard News. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  89. ^ Udo, Bassey (14 May 2015). "Missing $20 bn: Sanusi faults Alison-Madueke, says audit report proves at least $18.5bn lost". Premium Times Nigeria. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  90. ^ "Nigeria election: Muhammadu Buhari wins". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  91. ^ "Obama praises Nigeria's president for conceding defeat". Vanguard. 1 April 2015. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  92. ^ "APC praises Jonathan for conceding defeat". The Nation. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  93. ^ "Anyaoku Praises Jonathan For Conceding Defeat". Channels Television. 31 March 2015. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  94. ^ AfricaNews (27 February 2019). "Buhari beats Atiku to secure re-election as Nigeria president". Africanews. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  95. ^ Lasisi, Olukayode Joshua (29 September 2022). "Peter Obi leads in new poll, Google search interest". Businessday NG. Archived from the original on 2 December 2022. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  96. ^ Olurounbi, Eromo Egbejule,Ruth. "How Rabiu Kwankwaso became wildcard in Nigerian presidential race". Archived from the original on 24 September 2023. Retrieved 24 August 2023.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  97. ^ "Nigeria presidential election results 2023 by the numbers". Archived from the original on 9 August 2023. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  98. ^ "Nigeria local elections open in shadow of contested national vote". Archived from the original on 18 August 2023. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  99. ^ "Bola Tinubu sworn in as Nigeria's president, succeeds Buhari". Archived from the original on 6 September 2023. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  100. ^ Emmanuel Akinwotu (16 January 2024). "A kidnapping of six sisters and a murder has gripped Nigeria". DevOne Africa. NPR. Archived from the original on 19 February 2024. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  101. ^ "Rank Order – Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  102. ^ "Africa :: Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 17 May 2011. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2011. *Note that coastlines, and borders based on rivers or natural features, are fractals, the length of which is imprecise and depends on the measurement convention adopted.
  103. ^ a b "Nigeria". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 11 November 2003. Retrieved 19 July 2007.
  104. ^ a b c "Regions Used to Interpret the Complexity of Nigeria". Geographical Alliance of Iowa. University of Northern Iowa. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2007.
  105. ^ a b "The Human and Physical Characteristics of Nigeria". Geographical Alliance of Iowa. University of Northern Iowa. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
  106. ^ Gbolagade, Lameed (2011). "Species diversity and richness of wild birds in Dagona Waterfowl Sanctuary, Nigeria". African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology (5 ed.): 855–866. ISSN 1996-0786.
  107. ^ "Chad Basin National Park". 2 October 2013. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  108. ^ "TRANSBOUNDARY DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSIS OF THE LAKE CHAD BASIN". 4 March 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  109. ^ a b c "The Human and Physical Characteristics of Nigeria". Geographical Alliance of Iowa. University of Northern Iowa. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
  110. ^ Fashae, Olutoyin (2017). "Geospatial Analysis of Changes in Vegetation Cover over Nigeria". Bulletin of Geography (13): 17–27. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 18 September 2022.
  111. ^ Ogbonna, D.N.; Ekweozor, I.K.E.; Igwe, F.U. (2002). "Waste Management: A Tool for Environmental Protection in Nigeria". Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment. 31 (1): 55–57. doi:10.1639/0044-7447(2002)031[0055:wmatfe];2. JSTOR 4315211.
  112. ^ "". 17 November 2005. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  113. ^ "Rainforest analysis at". 1 January 2010. Archived from the original on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  114. ^ Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  115. ^ Bashir, Muhammed; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Getso, Kabiru; Kaita, Ibrahim M.; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Brown, Mary Jean (18 April 2014). "Assessment of blood lead levels among children aged ≤ 5 years—Zamfara State, Nigeria, June–July 2012". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 63 (15): 325–327. ISSN 1545-861X. PMC 5779393. PMID 24739340.
  116. ^ Donatus, Peter (15 October 2016). "Shell's Nigeria ecocide is creating a refugee crisis". Retrieved 6 July 2023.[permanent dead link]
  117. ^ "UNEP Ogoniland Oil Assessment Reveals Extent of Environmental Contamination and Threats to Human Health". UNEP. 7 August 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  118. ^ "'Ecocide' movement pushes for a new international crime: Environmental destruction". NBC News. 7 April 2021. Archived from the original on 22 June 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  119. ^ "Fighting ecocide in Nigeria". 5 February 2014. Archived from the original on 6 December 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  120. ^ "UNPO: Ogoni: An Ecocide in the Making?". Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  121. ^ "How an ecocide law could prevent another Nigerian oil disaster". The Guardian. 22 August 2011. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  122. ^ "Spotlighting oil majors' 'ecocide' of Niger Delta: Q&A with Michael J. Watts". Mongabay Environmental News. 2 June 2023. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  123. ^ "Nigeria's illegal oil refineries: Dirty, dangerous, lucrative". BBC News. 26 April 2022. Archived from the original on 10 October 2022. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  124. ^ Okereke, Chukwumerije; Emodi, Nnaemeka Vincent; Diemuodeke, Ogheneruona E. (9 May 2022). "Three things that can go wrong at an illegal oil refinery in Nigeria". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 12 October 2022. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  125. ^ Onukwue, Alexander (25 April 2022). "Nigeria's illegal oil refineries keep killing people". Quartz. Archived from the original on 15 October 2022. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  126. ^ Charles Mwalimu. The Nigerian Legal System: Public Law. Peter Lang. 2005. p. 6 Archived 5 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine.
  127. ^ a b "Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). 14 February 2022. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  128. ^ "Patrick Obahiagbon: Labour Party won't get 25% of votes in 24 states". TheCable. 4 September 2022. Archived from the original on 15 October 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  129. ^ "Constitution amendment: What the people want". 4 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  130. ^ "Constitutional review: Nigeria needs broader representation". 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  131. ^ a b Onuah, Felix (29 December 2006). "Nigeria gives census result, avoids risky details". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
  132. ^ "Nigeria: States & Agglomerations - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". Archived from the original on 30 September 2022. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  133. ^ Siliquini-Cinelli, Luca; Hutchison, Andrew (6 April 2017). The Constitutional Dimension of Contract Law: A Comparative Perspective. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-49843-0. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  134. ^ ProjectSolutionz (22 June 2021). "Law and the political structure in Nigeria". ProjectSolutionz. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  135. ^ "Africa :: Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). 12 September 2022. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  136. ^ Young, Andrew (20 July 2006) "Collins Edomaruse, how Obasanjo cut UK, US to size", This Day (Nigeria).
  137. ^ Burkett, Elinor (2009) Golda, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-187395-0, p. 202.
  138. ^ "ASAS – Africa-South America Summit". African Union. 30 November 2006. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  139. ^ Timothy, Shaw (1984). "The State of Nigeria: Oil Prices Power Bases and Foreign Policy". Canadian Journal of African Studies. 18 (2): 393–405. doi:10.2307/484337. JSTOR 484337.
  140. ^ LeVan, Carl; Ukata, Patrick (2018). The Oxford Handbook of Nigerian Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 751. ISBN 978-0-19-880430-7.
  141. ^ LeVan, Carl; Ukata, Patrick (2018). The Oxford Handbook of Nigerian Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 756. ISBN 978-0-19-880430-7.
  142. ^ LeVan, Carl; Ukata, Patrick (2018). The Oxford Handbook of Nigerian Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 754. ISBN 978-0-19-880430-7.
  143. ^ LeVan, Carl; Ukata, Patrick (2018). The Oxford Handbook of Nigerian Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 754–755. ISBN 978-0-19-880430-7.
  144. ^ Smith, Elliot (29 September 2020). "West Africa's new currency could now be delayed by five years". CNBC. Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  145. ^ "Armed forces personnel, total – Data". Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  146. ^ a b The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2022). The Military Balance 2022. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781032279008.
  147. ^ 3_Data for all countries from 1988 to 2017 as a share of GDP.pdf (
  148. ^ 1_Data for all countries from 1988 to 2017 in constant (2016) USD.pdf (
  149. ^ a b c d "Nigeria Security Tracker". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  150. ^ Agency Report (24 March 2022). "Over 40,000 terrorists surrender to troops – DHQ". Premium Times Nigeria. Archived from the original on 5 October 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  151. ^ a b Bankole, Idowu (15 September 2022). "Niger Delta militants at war over pipelines surveillance contract". Vanguard News. Archived from the original on 18 October 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  152. ^ "Niger Delta Avengers group says ends ceasefire in Nigeria oil hub - website". Reuters. 3 November 2017. Archived from the original on 15 October 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  153. ^ ACN (7 June 2022). "ACN statement about the Pentecost massacre in St. Francis Xavier Church in Owo, Nigeria". ACN International. Archived from the original on 18 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  154. ^ "GDP Per Capita | By Country | 2022 | Data". World Economics. Archived from the original on 10 May 2023. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  155. ^ Gbola Subair-Abuja (8 September 2014). "Remittances from diaspora Nigerians as lubricant for the economy". Nigerian Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  156. ^ Lewis, Peter (2007). Growing Apart: Oil, Politics, and Economic Change in Indonesia and Nigeria. University of Michigan Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-472-06980-4. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  157. ^ "World Bank list of economies". http: January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  158. ^ Ekene, Mfon Abel (12 March 2020). "Natural resources in Nigeria and their locations". Archived from the original on 10 June 2023. Retrieved 11 December 2022.
  159. ^ "Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 12 November 2022. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  160. ^ a b "Nigeria at a glance|FAO in Nigeria|Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations". Archived from the original on 7 June 2022. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  161. ^ "Nigeria at a glance". Archived from the original on 7 June 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  162. ^ Cadoni, P. (2013), "Analysis of Incentives and Disincentives for Cocoa in Nigeria" (PDF), Technical notes series, MAFAP, Rome: FAO, archived (PDF) from the original on 30 January 2023, retrieved 26 March 2023
  163. ^ Ibirogba, Femi (17 December 2018). "Stakeholders' strategies for re-awakening Nigeria's cocoa economy". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023. "Among the six major agricultural exports of the pre-petroleum exporting years (cocoa, palm oil, palm kernel, rubber, groundnuts and cotton), cocoa is the one still standing tall in terms of non-oil exports," [Professor Adegboyega Oguntade] said.
  164. ^ "Rubber in Nigeria | OEC". OEC - The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  165. ^ Ekpo, Akpan H. (1986). "Food dependency and the nigerian economy: an ex-post analysis, 1960-80". The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies. 28 (2): 257–273. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023. Up to 1974, the Nigerian economy was self-sufficient in the production of food. In recent years, however, Nigeria has become a net importer of basic foods.
  166. ^ a b Nwozor, Agaptus; Olanrewaju, John Shola; Ake, Modupe B. (2019). "National Insecurity and the Challenges of Food Security in Nigeria" (PDF). Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 8 (4). Richtmann Publishing. doi:10.36941/ajis-2019-0032. ISSN 2281-3993. S2CID 213869061. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 May 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  167. ^ Okotie, Sylvester (1 January 2018), Ndimele, Prince E. (ed.), "Chapter 5 - The Nigerian Economy Before the Discovery of Crude Oil", The Political Ecology of Oil and Gas Activities in the Nigerian Aquatic Ecosystem, Academic Press, pp. 71–81, ISBN 978-0-12-809399-3, archived from the original on 26 March 2023, retrieved 26 March 2023
  168. ^ Ake, Claude (1996). Democracy and Development in Africa. Brookings Institution Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8157-0220-7. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  169. ^ "Why Nigeria has restricted food imports". BBC News. 16 August 2019. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  170. ^ Pasquini, MW; Alexander, MJ (2005). "Soil fertility management strategies on the Jos Plateau: the need for integrating 'empirical' and 'scientific' knowledge in agricultural development". Geographical Journal. 171 (2): 112–124. Bibcode:2005GeogJ.171..112P. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4959.2005.00154.x.
  171. ^ "Rice pyramids and Nigeria's production puzzle". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 22 April 2022. Archived from the original on 5 June 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  172. ^ "Nigeria closes part of border with Benin to check rice smuggling". Reuters. 29 August 2019. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  173. ^ "Lagos today: Like Tinubu like Sanwo-Olu". TheCable. 4 May 2022. Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  174. ^ Nnodim, Okechukwu (29 April 2022). "Nigeria's proven gas reserves worth over $803.4tn – FG". Punch Newspapers. Archived from the original on 21 April 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  175. ^ PricewaterhouseCoopers. "Evaluating Nigeria's Gas Value Chain". PwC. Archived from the original on 14 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  176. ^ Ejiogu, Amanze R. (2013). "Gas Flaring in Nigeria: Costs and Policy". Energy & Environment. 24 (6): 983–998. Bibcode:2013EnEnv..24..983E. doi:10.1260/0958-305X.24.6.983. ISSN 0958-305X. JSTOR 43735213. S2CID 153746438. Archived from the original on 14 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  177. ^ Onuah, Felix (19 August 2022). "Nigeria's Buhari worried over large scale crude oil theft". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  178. ^ "Shell Nigeria says crude oil theft an existential threat to industry". Reuters. 7 July 2022. Archived from the original on 11 February 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  179. ^ Williams, Lizzie (2008). Nigeria: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-84162-239-2. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  180. ^ Environmental Resources Managers Ltd, Niger Delta Environmental Survey Final Report Phase I; Volume I: Environmental and Socio-Economic Characteristics (Lagos: Niger Delta Environmental Survey, September 1997)
  181. ^ Nigeria: The Political Economy of Oil ISBN 0-19-730014-6 (Khan, Ahmad)
  182. ^ "Reports | National Bureau of Statistics". Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  183. ^ Nelson, P.H.H., Role of Reflection Seismic in Development of Nembe Creek Field, Nigeria, 1980, in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade: 1968–1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN 0-89181-306-3, pp. 565–576
  184. ^ "Stakes in four Nigerian oil fields being sold by Shell". Nigeria Sun. 27 August 2014. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  185. ^ "Morocco closer to activating the gas pipeline with Nigeria". Atalayar. 27 April 2022. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  186. ^ "Nigeria's president launches new gas pipeline project". Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  187. ^ "Nigeria-Morocco Gas Pipeline (NMGP) Project Updates". Construction Review Online. 9 May 2022. Archived from the original on 28 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  188. ^ "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  189. ^ a b c "Only 57 Percent of Nigerian Electricity Customers are Metered". NOIPolls. 23 June 2023. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  190. ^ "Industrial hub: Why more companies are moving to Ogun". Vanguard Nigeria. 19 June 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  191. ^ "Ogun State's rising investment profile". Daily NewsWatch. 5 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  192. ^ "Ogun State: Nigeria's new Industrial hub". Online Nigeria News. 27 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  193. ^ "Nigeria now generates 13,000mw of power, says Minister – Chukwuma". Naijalitz – No 1 Entertainment Portal. Retrieved 28 October 2020.[permanent dead link]
  194. ^ "A new car assembly plant begins operation in Nigeria". NTU-SBF Centre for African Studies (CAS). Archived from the original on 4 July 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  195. ^ Yager, Thomas R. (March 2022). "The Mineral Industry of Nigeria" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  196. ^ Umoh, Ruth (5 December 2018). "Billionaire Aliko Dangote is the world's richest black person—here's how he made his wealth". CNBC. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  197. ^ "Products: Ajaokuta Steel Company: ...the Bedrock of Nigeria's Industrialization". Archived from the original on 25 June 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  198. ^ "Steel Production by Country 2022". Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  199. ^ "Nigeria to revive steel rolling mills – Official | Premium Times Nigeria". 28 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  200. ^ Polycarp, Nwafor (18 May 2017). "Nigeria to launch Africa's 1st nanosatellite". Vanguard. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  201. ^ Onyesi, Chika (6 October 2021). "'Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector dwindling despite 60 percent production capacity'". Daily Post Nigeria. Archived from the original on 5 June 2022. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  202. ^ Yahaya, Abdulwali (19 September 2019). "Top 10 Best Pharmaceutical Companies in Nigeria & Their Products". Nigerian Infopedia. Archived from the original on 17 May 2022. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  203. ^ "About Emzor Pharmaceutical Industries Limited". Emzor. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  204. ^ Okonji, Emma (24 October 2013). "Zinox Introduces Tablet Range of Computers, Plans Commercial Launch". This Day. This Day Live. Archived from the original on 27 October 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  205. ^ "Nigeria produces five of seven unicorns in Africa". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 26 January 2022. Archived from the original on 17 October 2022. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  206. ^ DeRouen, Karl R. & Bellamy, Paul (2008). International Security and the United States: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 546. ISBN 978-0-275-99253-8. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  207. ^ "The New Economy of Africa". Center For Global Development. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  208. ^ "Africa's Booming Tech Hubs Are "Backbone of Tech Ecosystem" Having Grown 40% This Year". Forbes. Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  209. ^ "92% of Nigerian adult males own mobile device, says GSMA". Punch Newspapers. 26 June 2022. Archived from the original on 19 August 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  210. ^ Paul, Emmanuel (28 November 2019). "Everything you need to know about Nigeria's Social Media Bill and what you can do about it". Techpoint Africa. Archived from the original on 20 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  211. ^ Archibong, Maurice (18 March 2004). "Nigeria: Gold mine waiting to be tapped". The Sun Online. The Sun Publishing Ltd. Archived from the original on 26 April 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  212. ^ "Managing Metropolitan Lagos" (PDF). R.Rasaki. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
  213. ^ Appiah, Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  214. ^ "Sustainability In The Nigerian Financial Sector – ESRM Africa". Archived from the original on 25 June 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  215. ^ "Cote d'Ivoire, others ahead of Nigeria on global logistics hub". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 25 April 2017. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  216. ^ Anagor, Amaka (8 October 2021). "Nigeria joins World Logistics Passport as strategic trade hub in West Africa". Businessday NG. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  217. ^ Shuaibu, Faruk (1 May 2022). "How FG moves to save 35,000km road networks". Daily Trust. Archived from the original on 14 September 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  218. ^ "7 States With the Worst Road Networks in Nigeria". 24 April 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022.[permanent dead link]
  219. ^ "2.3 Nigeria Road Network - Logistics Capacity Assessment - Digital Logistics Capacity Assessments". Archived from the original on 14 September 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  220. ^ "UPDATED: Motorists List Nigeria's Most Dangerous Roads, Say Bandits Built Dens Along Them | Sahara Reporters". Archived from the original on 14 September 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  221. ^ Babangida, Mohammed (18 May 2022). "Bandits abduct motorists on Abuja - Kaduna highway". Premium Times Nigeria. Archived from the original on 14 September 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  222. ^ "Nigerian airports processed 15.8m passengers in 1 year | Dailytrust". 22 September 2022. Archived from the original on 20 October 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
  223. ^ Report, Agency (9 January 2022). "New Anambra airport records 142 flights, 3,865 passengers in one month — Official". Premium Times. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  224. ^ "Lagos Airport's Terminal 2 opens – the Nigerian president wants concessions 'fast tracked'". CAPA - Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  225. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  226. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX) ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  227. ^ a b "People and Society: Population". The World Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  228. ^ CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Population 1971–2008 IEA pdf Archived 6 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine pp. 83–85
  229. ^ Dunne, Daisy (17 February 2023). "The Carbon Brief Profile: Nigeria". Carbon Brief. Archived from the original on 25 August 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  230. ^ "Human Development Data (1990–2017)". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 2 November 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  231. ^ "Egbe Omo Yoruba, National Association of Yoruba descendants in North America". 19 May 2007. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  232. ^ Kent, Mary Mederios; Haub, Carl (December 2005). "The Demographic Divide: What It Is and Why It Matters". Population Reference Bureau. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  233. ^ McDonald, John F.; McMillen, Daniel P. (2010). Urban Economics and Real Estate: Theory and Policy. Wiley Desktop Editions (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-470-59148-2.
  234. ^ "Major Urban Areas: Population". The World Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  235. ^ "Nigeria" in Geographica: The complete Atlas of the world, Random House, 2002, ISBN 0-375-72037-5
  236. ^ Lewis, Peter (2007). Growing Apart: Oil, Politics, and Economic Change in Indonesia and Nigeria. University of Michigan Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-472-06980-4. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 27 June 2024.
  237. ^ Suberu, Rotimi T. (2001). Federalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria. US Institute of Peace Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-929223-28-2. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 27 June 2024.
  238. ^ Politzer, Malia (August 2008). "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration". Migration Information Source. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  239. ^ Simpson, Sarah (August 2008). "Why white Zimbabwean farmers plan to stay in Nigeria". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  240. ^ {{cite web|url= World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency|}
  241. ^ Ebihard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). "Nigeria". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International Publications. Archived from the original on 12 September 2019.
  242. ^ "Updated List of Tribes, Languages and Ethnic Groups in Nigeria - Kogi State Hub". 6 April 2023. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 11 April 2023.
  243. ^ Adegbija, Efurosibina E. (2003). Multilingualism: A Nigerian Case Study. Last paragraph: Africa World Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-59221-173-9. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  244. ^ CIA Factbook: Nigeria [1] (retrieved 9 May 2020)
  245. ^ McKinnon, Andrew (2021). "Christians, Muslims and Traditional Worshippers in Nigeria: Estimating the Relative Proportions from Eleven Nationally Representative Social Surveys". Review of Religious Research. 63 (2): 303–315. doi:10.1007/s13644-021-00450-5. hdl:2164/16008. S2CID 233821494. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  246. ^ Chitando, Ezra (editor: Afe Adogame), African Traditions in the Study of Religion, Diaspora and Gendered Societies, Routledge (2016), p. 31, ISBN 9781317184188 [2] Archived 27 June 2024 at the Wayback Machine
  247. ^ "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 January 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  248. ^ Diamant, Jeff. "The countries with the 10 largest Christian populations and the 10 largest Muslim populations". Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  249. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Nigeria". World Christian Database. Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  250. ^ "Regional Distribution of Christians". 19 December 2011. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  251. ^ "Distribution of Christians".[permanent dead link]
  252. ^ "The Future of the Global Muslim Population". 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  253. ^ "Nigeria - The World Factbook". CIA. 6 February 2024. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  254. ^ "Research note: Exploring survey data for historical and anthropological research: Muslim–Christian relations in south-west Nigeria". Archived from the original on 30 September 2022. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  255. ^ "Nigeria: a secular or multi religious state – 2". Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  256. ^ "The Middle Belt: History and politics". 29 November 2004. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  257. ^ Akhtar, Rais (1991), Health Care Patterns and Planning in Developing Countries, Greenwood Press, p. 264.
  258. ^ "User fees for health: a background". Archived from the original on 28 November 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
  259. ^ "Effect of the Bamako-Initiative drug revolving fund on availability and rational use of essential drugs in primary health care facilities in south-east Nigeria". Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2006.
  260. ^ a b "Malaria Disease: A Worrisome Health Challenge in Nigeria". NOIPolls. 15 May 2023. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  261. ^ a b "| Human Development Reports". Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  262. ^ "Countdown Country Profiles". Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  263. ^ "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) - Nigeria | Data". Archived from the original on 7 March 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  264. ^ McNeil, Donald (11 May 2012). "Finding a Match, and a Mission: Helping Blacks Survive Cancer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  265. ^ Schiavenza, Matt (14 October 2014). "Why Nigeria Was Able to Beat Ebola, but Not Boko Haram". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  266. ^ "US sends experts to study Nigeria's anti-Ebola strategies". The Punch. 3 October 2014. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  267. ^ Odiogor, Hugo (2 October 2014). "US sends medical experts to study how Nigeria tamed Ebola". Vanguard. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  268. ^ Anekwe, Mike Chinedu (April 2003). "BRAIN DRAIN: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE (1)". Niger Delta Congress. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  269. ^ a b "Country Profile – Nigeria" (PDF). United States Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. July 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  270. ^ "Education | UNICEF Nigeria". Archived from the original on 26 January 2024. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  271. ^ WIPO. "Global Innovation Index 2023, 15th Edition". doi:10.34667/tind.46596. Archived from the original on 22 October 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  272. ^ "Global Innovation Index 2021". World Intellectual Property Organization. United Nations. Archived from the original on 20 November 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  273. ^ a b c "7 In 10 Nigerians find "state of security" dreadful". 27 May 2022. Archived from the original on 4 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  274. ^ "Nigeria Security Tracker". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2023.
  275. ^ Igwe, Uchenna (17 January 2023). "Murder, kidnapping and arson: Nigerian pirates switch targets from ships to shore". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 27 June 2024. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  276. ^ "The Establishment Act". Economic and Financial Crimes Commission. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  277. ^ Sanni, Kunle (4 January 2023). "EFCC secures 3,785 convictions in 2022". Premium Times Nigeria. Archived from the original on 5 October 2023. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  278. ^ Agbana, Rotimi (20 May 2023). "Corrupt politicians planning to flee before May 29 - EFCC". Punch Newspapers. Archived from the original on 5 October 2023. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  279. ^ "Nigeria's President Tinubu suspends anti-corruption agency head". Archived from the original on 5 October 2023. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  280. ^ "Poverty headcount ratio at $2.15 a day (2017 PPP) (% of population) - Nigeria | Data". Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  281. ^ Olawoyin, Oladeinde (30 March 2022). "Number of poor people in Nigeria to reach 95 million in 2022 – World Bank". Premium Times Nigeria. Archived from the original on 12 October 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  282. ^ "Nigeria Poverty Assessment". World Bank. Archived from the original on 11 October 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  283. ^ "Perspective | The official U.S. poverty rate is based on a hopelessly out-of-date metric". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  284. ^ "SOLVED:Why is it difficult to determine a universal poverty threshold?". Archived from the original on 12 October 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  285. ^ "92% of Nigerian adult males own mobile device, says GSMA". Punch Newspapers. 26 June 2022. Archived from the original on 19 August 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  286. ^ a b "2008 Human Rights Report: Nigeria". 2008 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. United States, Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 25 February 2009. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  287. ^ "OHCHR | Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women". Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  288. ^ Guilbert, Kieran (17 March 2017). "Failure to pass equality bill betrays Nigerian women, activists say". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  289. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld – Nigeria: Prevalence of forced marriage, particularly in Muslim and Yoruba communities; information on legislation, including state protection; ability of women to refuse a forced marriage". Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  290. ^ Mark, Monica (2 September 2013). "Nigeria's child brides: 'I thought being in labour would never end'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  291. ^ Clarke, Joe Sandler (11 March 2015). "Nigeria: Child brides facing death sentences a decade after child marriage prohibited". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  292. ^ Shoneyin, Lola (19 March 2010). "Polygamy? No thanks". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  293. ^ Aluko, Bioye Tajudeen & Amidu, Abdul–Rasheed (2006). "Women and Land Rights Reforms in Nigeria" (PDF). 5th FIG Regional Conference. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  294. ^ "Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) | Data". Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  295. ^ Topping, Alexandra (29 May 2015). "Nigeria's female genital mutilation ban is important precedent, say campaigners". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  296. ^ Oduah, Chika (11 June 2015). "In Nigeria, neglected women bear the shame of fistulas". Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  297. ^ "The Dutch doctor and the river spirit". Radio Netherlands Archives. 6 March 2002. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  298. ^ Ajayi, Kunle (2007). "Gender Self-Endangering: The Sexist Issue in Nigerian Politics". The Social Science Journal. 14: 137–147 – via Department of Political Science, University of Ado.
  299. ^ Epiphany Azinge, "The Right to Vote in Nigeria: A Critical Commentary on the Open Ballot System," Journal of African Law, Vol. 38, No. 2 (1994), pp. 173–180.
  300. ^ a b Ajayi, Kunle (2007). "Gender Self-Endangering: The Sexist Issue in Nigerian Politics". The Social Science Journal. 14 (137–147 &#x2013) – via Department of Political Science, University of Ado.
  301. ^ Fapohunda, Tinuke M (1 January 2012). "Women and the Informal Sector in Nigeria: Implications for Development". British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences. 4 (1). ISSN 2046-9578. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  302. ^ Bearak, Max; Cameron, Darla (16 June 2016). "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 23 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  303. ^ "Sub Saharan Africa, Nigeria". Travel advice by country. United Kingdom, Foreign & Commonwealth Office. 20 March 2009. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  304. ^ "The Global Divide on Homosexuality". pewglobal. 4 June 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  305. ^ "Country policy and information note: sexual orientation and gender identity or expression, Nigeria, February 2022 (accessible version)". Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  306. ^ Hansford, Amelia (5 September 2023). "More than 60 people remanded in jail for attending alleged gay wedding in Nigeria". PinkNews. Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  307. ^ Spooner, Moina; Oluwagbile, Segun (18 September 2022). "Nigeria's endless lecturer strikes: insights from some essential reads". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 30 September 2022. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  308. ^ AfricaNews (6 September 2022). "Nigeria: students abandoned as teachers' strike drags on". Africanews. Archived from the original on 29 September 2022. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  309. ^ a b c d e "100 years of pop music in Nigeria: What shaped four eras". 14 July 2022. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  310. ^ a b c d "Nigerians and their music: A historical perspective". The Sun Nigeria. 10 March 2023. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  311. ^ "William Onyeabor Songs, Albums, Reviews, Bio & More". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 31 October 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  312. ^ Oluwafemi, Taiwo (20 February 2023). "2face, D'banj, P-Square - Who Was The Biggest Artiste Of Their Era?". tooXclusive. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  313. ^ Azeez, Makinde (8 September 2018). "2Baba, D'banj And Psquare - Which One Of Them Is Worth Calling A Musical Legend?". Naijaloaded. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  314. ^ HOPKID (25 April 2023). "PSquare Paved The Way For Afrobeat Not D'banj or 2face". THE NSG. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  315. ^ "AP/CNN: MTV launches first-ever African music award show". CNN. 22 November 2008. Archived from the original on 9 December 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  316. ^ "Top 20 Films Report 9th-15th April 2021". Nigeria: CEAN. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  317. ^ Augoye, Jayne (7 January 2020). "'Wedding Party 1' named highest-grossing Nollywood movie of the decade". Premium Times. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  318. ^ "'The Wedding Party 2 -Destination Dubai" costs N300m–Producer". 31 January 2018. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  319. ^ "Top 20 films 27th December 2019 2nd January 2020 - Cinema Exhibitors Association of Nigeria". Archived from the original on 3 December 2022. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  320. ^ "Top 20 films 24th - 26th June 2022 - Cinema Exhibitors Association of Nigeria". Archived from the original on 12 November 2022. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  321. ^ "Lights, camera, Africa". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  322. ^ Thorburn, Jane. "NOLLYWOOD 2 Doing It Right". Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  323. ^ "Nigerian films try to move upmarket: Nollywood's new scoreboard". The Economist. 17 July 2014. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  324. ^ Akande, Victor (14 September 2014). "Toronto: Nigerians disagree over new Nollywood". The Nation Newspaper. The Nation Online. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  325. ^ Liston, Enjoli (10 April 2014). "Hello Nollywood: how Nigeria became Africa's biggest economy overnight". The Guardian Newspaper. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  326. ^ Hazlewood, Phil (7 April 2014). "Nollywood helps Nigeria kick South Africa's economic butt". Sowetan Live. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  327. ^ Manasa, Makweembo (11 February 2010). "TB Joshua – 21st Century Prophet in Our Midst?". Zambian Watchdog. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
  328. ^ "Festivals in Nigeria". Online Nigeria. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  329. ^ "Patchwork of Celebration". The Report: Nigeria 2010. Oxford Business Group. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-907065-14-9.
  330. ^ Anthonio, H.O. and Isoun, M. (1982), Nigerian Cookbook, Macmillan, Lagos, ISBN 0-333-32698-9.
  331. ^ None (11 June 2019). "The state of Nigeria's Fashion Industry". Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  332. ^ "Nigerian Basketball". 2011. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  333. ^ Selbe, Nick (10 July 2021). "Nigeria Upsets Team USA in Pre-Olympics Exhibition". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on 6 April 2023. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  334. ^ OQTM – Nigeria celebrates 'greatest' victory,, accessed 16 December 2012.
  335. ^ Nxumalo, Lee (20 December 2020). "Basketball's next frontier is Africa". New Frame. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  336. ^ Udoh, Colin (17 November 2017). "Nigeria bobsled women qualify for Winter Olympics". ESPN. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  337. ^ "Why Nigeria produces Scrabble champions". The Economist. 30 November 2017. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  338. ^ "First African curling facility begins development in Nigeria". World Curling Federation. 18 June 2020. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  339. ^ "Continental Cup Finals start in Africa". FIVB. 22 June 2021. Archived from the original on 7 August 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  340. ^ "Beach Volleyball: Team Nigeria lands in Cape Verde". The Sun (Nigeria). 25 February 2019. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  341. ^ "About Loofball". Archived from the original on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 3 May 2023.


  • Derfler, Leslie (2011). The Fall and Rise of Political Leaders: Olof Palme, Olusegun Obasanjo, and Indira Gandhi. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1349290512.
  • Iliffe, John (2011). Obasanjo, Nigeria and the World. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 9781847010278. JSTOR 10.7722/j.ctt81pgm. OCLC 796383923.
  • Shillington, Kevin (2005). History of Africa (2nd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780333599570.

Further reading

  • Hill, Sam (15 January 2020). "Black China: Africa's First Superpower Is Coming Sooner Than You Think". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  • Dibua, Jeremiah I. Modernization and the crisis of development in Africa: the Nigerian experience (Routledge, 2017)
  • Ekundare, Olufemi R. An Economic History of Nigeria 1860–1960 (Methuen & Co Ltd, 1973)
  • Falola, Toyin; and Adam Paddock. Environment and Economics in Nigeria (2012)
  • Falola, Toyin, Ann Genova, and Matthew M. Heaton. Historical dictionary of Nigeria (Rowman & Littlefield, 2018) online Archived 1 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  • Falola, Toyin, and Matthew M. Heaton. A History of Nigeria (2008)
  • Shillington, Kevin. Encyclopedia of African History. (University of Michigan Press, 2005) p. 1401.
  • Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. Nigeria: a country study (U.S. Library of Congress. Federal Research Division, 1992) online free Archived 5 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine, comprehensive historical and current coverage; not copyright.
  • Jones, Cunliffe-Peter. My Nigeria: Five Decades of Independence (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)
  • Achebe, Chinua. The Trouble with Nigeria (Fourth Dimension, 1983)

External links

Nigeria at Wikipedia's sister projects
  • Definitions from Wiktionary
  • Media from Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • Quotations from Wikiquote
  • Texts from Wikisource
  • Textbooks from Wikibooks
  • Resources from Wikiversity
  • Travel information from Wikivoyage
  • v
  • t
  • e
Nigeria articles
  • Kingdoms
  • Empires
  • Conflicts
  • Category
  • Portal
  • v
  • t
  • e
Sovereign states
Associated states
Dependent territories
New Zealand
United Kingdom
Source: Commonwealth Secretariat – Member Countries
  • v
  • t
  • e
Member states
and territories
  • 1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".
Authority control databases Edit this at Wikidata
  • FAST
  • ISNI
  • VIAF
  • WorldCat
  • Spain
  • France
    • 2
  • BnF data
    • 2
  • Germany
  • Israel
  • United States
  • Japan
  • Czech Republic
  • MusicBrainz area
  • UK Parliament
  • Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
  • NARA
  • IdRef
  • İslâm Ansiklopedisi

8°N 10°E / 8°N 10°E / 8; 10